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Glossary / Glossary


abapicalpointing away from the apex along the axis.
abyssalsea bed at 4000-6000m depth.
abyssopelagicPelagic phase at 4000-6000m depth
adapicalpointing towards the apex along the axis.
aff. or affinisThe term affinis (or sp. aff = species affinis) is used when the identity of a distinct biological species is unknown but it has a striking similarity or close relation with a known species
alatewinged, having alae.
allochthongeological object, that has been transported from the place where it has been formed to the place where it is found, see also autochthon.
AMNHAmerican Museum of Natural History, New York
AMSAustralian Museum, Sydney
ANSPAcademy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
anteriorpointing away from the apex
aperture Opening at last formed margin of shell Wikipedia
apex The tip of the gastropods spire, the part of the gastropod where it began to grow.
aragoniteis a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 and is the high pressure polymorph of calcium carbonate. Aragonite forms naturally in almost all mollusk shells, and as the calcareous endoskeleton of warm- and cold-water corals.
ASUCAin Shams University Geology, Cairo.
autochthongeological object, which is in the place of its original formation, see also parautochthon, allochthon
bathyalSea bed at 1000-4000m depth, same as "continental rise"
bathypelagicPelagic phase 1000-4000m depth
BHUBenares Hindu University
bicarinatewith two spiral keels.
BM(NH)British Museum (Natural History), now The Natural History Museum London
BMSMBailey-Matthews Shell Museum
BMUWBurke Museum, University of Washington, Seattle
BNHMBasel Natural History Museum
brachyhaline (polyhaline)water with a salinity of 1,8 - 3,0 % (Hudson, 1990)
BRITBiological Research Institute, Takarazuka, Japan
BRLSIBath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
calciteis a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
carbonate sedimentary rocksare sedimentary rocks formed at (or near) the Earth's surface by precipitation from solution at surface temperatures or by accumulation and lithification of fragments of preexisting rocks or remains of organisms
carinatewith a spiral keel.
CASCalifornia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
cf.(Latin for confer = compares with) is used in similar papers to indicate that the specimen resembles the named species very closely, but has certain minor features not found on the type specimens.
chalkcalcium carbonate or CaCO3, with minor amounts of silt and clay
clasticSediments composed of mechanical breakdown of rocks, such as mud, sand and gravel. I Geology: rocks composed clastic sediments, such as sandstone.
CMNHCarnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh
CMNZCanterbury Museum, Christchurch, New Zealand
coinducturais a secondary shell layer extending over the inner lip within the aperture and covering only a small part of the inductura (Moore, 1941)
continental shelfto edge of continental slope (normally about 200m).
continental slopeSea bed from 200-1000m depth
CPASCentro Português de Atividades Subaquáticas, Lisbon
cyronymvalid name.
deposit feederanimal feeding on bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus by filtering sediment.
DMNHDelaware Museum of Natural History, Wilmington
dorsaltowards the back of the shell or the mollusc animal, opposite: ventral.
ECUEast Carolina University, Greenville
epifaunalliving above the sediment.
epipelagicPelagic phase above shelf break (200m depth)
euhalineseawater with a salinity of 3,0 - 4,0 %. (Hudson, 1990)
euryhalineorganisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities
fathom1 fathom = 1.8288 meters.
feet1 feet = 0.3048 meters.
FLMNHFlorida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville
FMNHThe Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
fresh waterwater with a salinity lower 0,05 % (Hudson, 1990)
FWWBfair weather wave base: refers to the depth beneath the waves under normal conditions and the portion of the seafloor that is agitated by this everyday wave action is known as the Upper shoreface, see Wikipedia
GDKUGeology Department, Kyushu University, Fukuoka
GITUGeol. Min. Tokyo Univ. Educ.
GIUTGeological Institute, University of Tokyo
GIYUGeological Institute, Yokohama National University
GMBIGeology Museum, Bandung, Indonesia
GMCEGeological Museum of Cairo, Egypt
GPIHGeologisch-Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Hamburg.
GPIBGeologisches-Paläontologisches Institut Bonn, Germany; old terminology. new: IPB
GSIGeological Survey of India, Calcutta
hadalSea bed below 6000m depth
hadopelagicPelagic phase below 6000m depth
HMNSHouston Museum of Natural Science
HNMBHungarian National Museum, Budapest
holotypeThe holotype is that single specimen, which is the basis for the description and the naming of a species.
HSGIHungarian State Geology Institute, Budapest
HUJHebrew Univeristy of Jerusalem
hybridan offspring resulting from cross-breeding between two different species
IAUUInstituut voor Aardwetenschappen, Utrecht University
IGPSGeo-Paleontology Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai
IGUTInstitute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba.
IMTInstitute of Malacology, Tokyo
inductura Smooth shelly layer secreted by general surface of mantle, commonly extending from inner side of aperture over parietal region, columellar lip, and (in some genera) part or all of shell exterior
infaunalliving in the sediment. A hint for an infaunal life could be the ratio of naticid to muricid borings. Most Naticids attack their prey infaunally, Muricids epifaunally.
infralittoral fringeThe fringe between the low tide level and the subtidal
intertidalBetween spring high and low tide marks
IPBSteinmann-Institut, Dep. Paleontology, Bonn
IRScNBL’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique.
IRSNInstitut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels
JHUJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore
JUEJoetsu University of Education, Niigata Prefecture
KIMNKikuchi Institute of Malacology, Nishinomiya, Japan
KPMYKanagawa Prefectural Museum, Yokohama
LACMNatural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles
LACMIPNatural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Invertebrate Paleontology Department, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
lectotypeThe lectotype is a specimen choosen from a series of syntypes as an equivalent to the holotype.
LMDLöbbecke Museum, Düsseldorf
LSLLinnaen Society of London
MACNMuseo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia," Buenos Aires
MBAMuseo de Buenos Aires
MBLMuseu Bocage, Lisbon
MBMLMissao de Biologica Maritima, Lisbon
MCNMMuseo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan
MCZHMuseum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge
MDNGMuseum der Natur, Gotha
mesohalinewater with a salinity of 0,5 - 1,8 % (Hudson, 1990)
mesopelagicPelagic phase from 200-1000m depth
MFMJMizunami Fossil Museum, Mizunami, Japan
MHNGMuseum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève
MIGiGPaleontological Museum of United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk
MIGKMuseum of the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Kyoto
MIGTMuseo dell'Istituto di Geologia, Turin
MJSNMusée jurassien des sciences naturelles, Jardin Botanique, Porrentruy
(type species by) monotypyis when in the original description of a genus only one species is mentioned which should be attributed to that particular new genus, but no statement is made whether there are more species to be allocated to that new genus, or a statement such as (e.g.): Aporrhais quatorcarinata belongs to this new genus.
MLPAMueso de La Plata, La Plata
MNCMMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid
MNHBMuseum der Naturkunde für Humboldt Universität zu Berlin
MNHNMuseum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris
MNHUMuseum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universtät Berlin
MNRJMuseu Nacional da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
MORGMuseu Oceanográfico da Fundação Universidade de Rio Grande, Brazil
MPUHMuseum Poey, University of Havana
MSNPMuseo di Storia Naturale, Università di Pisa
multispiral protoconchhas 2,5 or more whorls
NHMWNaturhistorisches Museum Wien
NMCNatur-Museum, Coburg
NMNLNational Museum of Natural History Naturalis, Leiden
NMNSNational Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan
NMSANatal Museum, Pietermaritzburg
NMSFNatur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt
NMVMNational Museum of Victoria, Melbourne
NMWNational Museum of Wales, Cardiff
nomen nudum(Latin for "naked name") A scientific name without a description. More: see Wikipedia
NP1-25Paleogene Nannoplankton zones (Martini, 1971)
NRMNaturhistoriska Riksmuseet in Stockholm
NSMNNishinomiya Shell Museum, Nishinomiya
NSMTstands for National Science Museum Tokyo
NMBstands for Naturhistorisches Museum Basel
NZGSNew Zealand Geological Survey, Lower Hutt
oligohalinewater with a salinity from 0,05 - 0,5 % (Hudson, 1990)
operculum(pl. opercula) in stromboidean shells: a horny plate, attached dorsally to the foot. It serves the mollusc to close the aperture after withdrawing into the shell. In Strombidae, it is used sometimes during locomotion.
(type species by) original designationis that the type species was designated in the original publication where the genus was described, and the type species was explicitely stated as being the type species.
paratypeParatypes are specimens that the author of a new species used and cited for the description and naming, other than the holotype.
parautochthonegeological object, that has been slightly transported from the place where it has been formed to the place where it is found, see also autochthon, allochthon.
paucispiral protoconchhas 2,0 or fewer whorls
pelagicUse only if more specific depth information is lacking.
perinducturais a secondary shell layer assumed to be secreted by a mantle flap reflected back over the outer apertural lip (Moore, 1941)
posteriorpointing towards the apex
PRIPaleontological Research Institute, Ithaca
protoconch Shell of the gastropod embryo or larval stadium, becomes later the apex.
RBCMRoyal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, Canada.
RGMRijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie, Leiden (now part of Naturalis)
RMSERoyal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh
rostrumbeak-shaped abapical extension of the aperture
SAMSouth African Museum in Cape Town, South Africa.
SAMASouth Australian Museum, Adelaide
SBMHSanta Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara
SGO.PI.Departamento de Paleontologý´a de Invertebrados, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile
shallow subtidalSea bed from low tide mark to 5m depth
sideritea widespread brown mineral, Iron Carbonate without additional anions, without H2O
siliciclastic(siliclastic) Sediments composed of non-carbonate rocks, such as quartz or other silicates.
siphonal canalsemi-tubular abapical extension of the aperture, see wikipedia
s.l.sensu lato (latin) = in a broad sense.
SMFSenckenberg Museum Frankfurt
SMNSStaatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart
s.s.sensu stricto (latin) = in a narrow sense.
stenohalinedescribes an organism that cannot tolerate a wide fluctuation in the salinity of water
subtidalSea bed from 5-20m depth
supratidalAbove the high tide mark
SUPTStanford University Paleontological Type Collection
(type species by) subsequent designationis comparable to a lectotype. In the original description an author says (e.g.) "To this new genus the following species belong: Aporrhais quatorcarinata , A. tridentata, A. monodactylus and A. pentacostata." In this statement, no species is designated as being the type species, and either of the formentioned four species is eligible as type species. Any designation of a type species after the original description [in another publication that is] is a subsequent designation.
suspension feederanimal feeding on bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus by filtering water
suture continuous line on shell surface where whorls adjoin see also Wikipedia
SWBstorm wave base refers to the depths beneath storm-driven waves and can be much deeper. The portion of the seafloor that is only agitated by storm-driven wave action is known as the Lower shoreface, see Wikipedia
syntypeSyntypes are those specimens that an author used as basis to describe and name a new species and where he did not choose a holotype.
taxona group or category of living or fossil organisms. Example: species, genus, family, ...
THTATeramachi Hall, Toba Aquarium, Toba, Japan
TMGSTaiwan Museum of Geological Science, Taipei
TMHTasmanian Museum Art Gallery, Hobart
TMUATate Museum, University of Adelaide
TRFRTokai Regional Fishery Research Labortory, Tokyo, Japan
UBRGUniversité du Bordeaux, United Etudé de Recherches Géologique d'Aquitaine
UCBLUniversité ClaudeBernard, Lyon
UCMPUniversity of California Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley)
USNMNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
UUZMZoologische Institute, University of Uppsala, Sweden
UZMCUniversitetets Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen
ventralunderside of the shell (where the aperture is), opposite: dorsal
WAMWestern Australian Museum, Perth
WFISWagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia
WPMNWakayama Prefectural Museum of Natural History, Wakayama City
YPMYale Peabody Museum of Natural History
ZMAZoologisches Museum Amsterdam
ZMBZoologisches Museum Berlin
ZMMUZoological Museum, Moscow State University
ZMUAZoologisch Museum, University of Amsterdam
ZMUCZoological Museum, University of Copenhagen
ZPALPolish Academy of Sciences in Warszawa
ZSICZoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India
ZSMZoologische Staatssammlung, Munich


Internet Glossaries


  • Hudson, J. D., 1990. Salinity from faunal analysis and geochemistry, in Palaeobiology, edited by D.E. Briggs and P. R. Crowther, pp. 406–408, Blackwell Sci., Malden, Mass., 1990
  • Martini, E. 1971. Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplancton zonation. In: Farinacci (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2nd Planktonic Conference, Roma, 1970, Edizioni Technoscienca, 2, 739-785.
  • Moore, R.C. 1941. Upper Pennsylvanian gastropods from Kansas. Kansas State Geological Bulletin 38:121-164.
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