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abapicalpointing away from the apex along the axis.
abyssalsea bed at 4000-6000m depth.
abyssopelagicPelagic phase at 4000-6000m depth
adapicalpointing towards the apex along the axis.
aff. or affinisThe term affinis (or sp. aff = species affinis) is used when the identity of a distinct biological species is unknown but it has a striking similarity or close relation with a known species
alatewinged, having alae.
ANSPAcademy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
anteriorpointing away from the apex
aperture Opening at last formed margin of shell Wikipedia
apex The tip of the gastropods spire, the part of the gastropod where it began to grow.
bathyalSea bed at 1000-4000m depth, same as "continental rise"
bathypelagicPelagic phase 1000-4000m depth
bicarinatewith two spiral keels.
BM(NH)British Museum (Natural History), now The Natural History Museum London
brachyhaline (polyhaline)water with a salinity of 1,8 - 3,0 % (Hudson, 1990)
carbonate sedimentary rocksare sedimentary rocks formed at (or near) the Earth's surface by precipitation from solution at surface temperatures or by accumulation and lithification of fragments of preexisting rocks or remains of organisms
carinatewith a spiral keel.
CASCalifornia Academy of Sciences, San Francisco
cf.(Latin for confer = compares with) is used in similar papers to indicate that the specimen resembles the named species very closely, but has certain minor features not found on the type specimens.
clasticSediments composed of mechanical breakdown of rocks, such as mud, sand and gravel. I Geology: rocks composed clastic sediments, such as sandstone.
coinducturais a secondary shell layer extending over the inner lip within the aperture and covering only a small part of the inductura (Moore, 1941)
continental shelfto edge of continental slope (normally about 200m).
continental slopeSea bed from 200-1000m depth
cyronymvalid name.
deposit feederanimal feeding on bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus by filtering sediment.
dorsaltowards the back of the shell or the mollusc animal, opposite: ventral.
epifaunalliving above the sediment.
epipelagicPelagic phase above shelf break (200m depth)
euhalineseawater with a salinity of 3,0 - 4,0 %. (Hudson, 1990)
euryhalineorganisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities
fathom1 fathom = 1.8288 meters.
feet1 feet = 0.3048 meters.
FMNHField Museum of Natural History, Chicago
fresh waterwater with a salinity lower 0,05 % (Hudson, 1990)
GPIHGeologisch-Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Hamburg.
GPIBGeologisches-Paläontologisches Institut Bonn, Germany; old terminology. new: IPB
hadalSea bed below 6000m depth
hadopelagicPelagic phase below 6000m depth
holotypeThe holotype is that single specimen, which is the basis for the description and the naming of a species.
hybridan offspring resulting from cross-breeding between two different species
IGUTInstitute of Geoscience, University of Tsukuba.
inductura Smooth shelly layer secreted by general surface of mantle, commonly extending from inner side of aperture over parietal region, columellar lip, and (in some genera) part or all of shell exterior
infaunalliving in the sediment. A hint for an infaunal life could be the ratio of naticid to muricid borings. Most Naticids attack their prey infaunally, Muricids epifaunally.
infralittoral fringeThe fringe between the low tide level and the subtidal
intertidalBetween spring high and low tide marks
IPBSteinmann-Institut, Dep. Paleontology, Bonn
IRScNBL’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique.
LACMIPNatural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Invertebrate Paleontology Department, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
lectotypeThe lectotype is a specimen choosen from a series of syntypes as an equivalent to the holotype.
mesohalinewater with a salinity of 0,5 - 1,8 % (Hudson, 1990)
mesopelagicPelagic phase from 200-1000m depth
MHNGMuseum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève
MIGiGPaleontological Museum of United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk
MJSNMusée jurassien des sciences naturelles, Jardin Botanique, Porrentruy
(type species by) monotypyis when in the original description of a genus only one species is mentioned which should be attributed to that particular new genus, but no statement is made whether there are more species to be allocated to that new genus, or a statement such as (e.g.): Aporrhais quatorcarinata belongs to this new genus.
MNHNMuseum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris
multispiral protoconchhas 2,5 or more whorls
NHMWNaturhistorisches Museum Wien
nomen nudum(Latin for "naked name") A scientific name without a description. More: see Wikipedia
NP1-25Paleogene Nannoplankton zones (Martini, 1971)
NRMNaturhistoriska Riksmuseet in Stockholm
NSMTstands for National Science Museum Tokyo
NMBstands for Naturhistorisches Museum Basel
oligohalinewater with a salinity from 0,05 - 0,5 % (Hudson, 1990)
operculum(pl. opercula) in stromboidean shells: a horny plate, attached dorsally to the foot. It serves the mollusc to close the aperture after withdrawing into the shell. In Strombidae, it is used sometimes during locomotion.
(type species by) original designationis that the type species was designated in the original publication where the genus was described, and the type species was explicitely stated as being the type species.
paratypeParatypes are specimens that the author of a new species used and cited for the description and naming, other than the holotype.
paucispiral protoconchhas 2,0 or fewer whorls
pelagicUse only if more specific depth information is lacking.
perinducturais a secondary shell layer assumed to be secreted by a mantle flap reflected back over the outer apertural lip (Moore, 1941)
posteriorpointing towards the apex
protoconch Shell of the gastropod embryo or larval stadium, becomes later the apex.
RBCMRoyal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, Canada.
rostrumbeak-shaped abapical extension of the aperture
SAMSouth African Museum in Cape Town, South Africa.
SGO.PI.Departamento de Paleontologý´a de Invertebrados, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile
shallow subtidalSea bed from low tide mark to 5m depth
siliciclastic(siliclastic) Sediments composed of non-carbonate rocks, such as quartz or other silicates.
siphonal canalsemi-tubular abapical extension of the aperture, see wikipedia
s.l.sensu lato (latin) = in a broad sense.
SMFSenckenberg Museum Frankfurt
s.s.sensu stricto (latin) = in a narrow sense.
stenohalinedescribes an organism that cannot tolerate a wide fluctuation in the salinity of water
subtidalSea bed from 5-20m depth
supratidalAbove the high tide mark
(type species by) subsequent designationis comparable to a lectotype. In the original description an author says (e.g.) "To this new genus the following species belong: Aporrhais quatorcarinata , A. tridentata, A. monodactylus and A. pentacostata." In this statement, no species is designated as being the type species, and either of the formentioned four species is eligible as type species. Any designation of a type species after the original description [in another publication that is] is a subsequent designation.
suspension feederanimal feeding on bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus by filtering water
suture continuous line on shell surface where whorls adjoin see also Wikipedia
syntypeSyntypes are those specimens that an author used as basis to describe and name a new species and where he did not choose a holotype.
taxona group or category of living or fossil organisms. Example: species, genus, family, ...
UCMPUniversity of California Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley)
ventralunderside of the shell (where the aperture is), opposite: dorsal
ZMAZoologisches Museum Amsterdam
ZMBZoologisches Museum Berlin
ZPALPolish Academy of Sciences in Warszawa


Internet Glossaries


  • Hudson, J. D., 1990. Salinity from faunal analysis and geochemistry, in Palaeobiology, edited by D.E. Briggs and P. R. Crowther, pp. 406–408, Blackwell Sci., Malden, Mass., 1990
  • Martini, E. 1971. Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplancton zonation. In: Farinacci (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2nd Planktonic Conference, Roma, 1970, Edizioni Technoscienca, 2, 739-785.
  • Moore, R.C. 1941. Upper Pennsylvanian gastropods from Kansas. Kansas State Geological Bulletin 38:121-164.
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