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Geology / Geology

Geology

Time Scale:

Era

Period

Epoch

Stage

Age (Ma)

Cenozoic

Quaternary

Holocene

present-0,0117

Pleistocene

Upper

0,0117-0,126

Middle ("Ionian")

0,126-0,781

Calabrian

0,781-1,806

Gelasian

1,806-2,588

Neogene

Pliocene

Piacenzian

2,588-3,60

Zanclean

3,60-5,33

Miocene

Messinian

5,33-7,25

Tortonian

7,25-11,62

Serravallian

11,62-13,82

Langhian

13,82-15,97

Burdigalian

15,97-20,44

Aquitanian

20,44-23,03

Paleogene

Oligocene

Chattian

23,03-28,1

Rupelian

28,1-33,9

Eocene

Priabonian

33,9-38

Bartonian

38-41,3

Lutetian

41,3-47,8

Ypresian

47,8-56

Paleocene

Thanetian

56-59,2

Selandian

59,2-61,6

Danian

61,6-66

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

Upper Cretaceous

Maastrichtian

66-72,1

Campanian

72,1-83,6

Santonian

83,6-86,3

Coniacian

86,3-89,8

Turonian

89,8-93,9

Cenomanian

93,9-100,5

Lower Cretaceous

Albian

100,5-113,0

Aptian

113,0-125,0

Barremian

125,0-129,4

Hauterivian

129,4-132,9

Valanginian

132,9-139,8

Berriasian

139,8-145,0

Jurassic

Upper Jurassic (Malm)

Tithonian

145,0-152,1

Kimmeridgian

152,1-157,3

Oxfordian

157,3-163,5

Middle Jurassic, (Dogger)

Callovian

163,5-166,1

Bathonian

166,1-168,3

Bajocian

168,3-170,3

Aalenian

170,3-174,1

Lower Jurassic (Lias)

Toarcian

174,1-182,7

Pliensbachian

182,7-190,8

Sinemurian

190,8-199,3

Hettangian

199,3-201,3

Triassic


References

  • Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Schmitz, M. D., and Ogg, G. M., eds., 2012, The geologic time scale 2012: Elsevier, 1,144 p.
  • Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., and Smith, A. G., 2004, A geologic time scale 2004: Cambridge University Press, 589 p.
  • Harlan, W. B., Armstrong, R. L., Cox, A. V., Craig, L. E., Smith, A. G., and Smith, D. G., 1990, A Geologic Time Scale 1989: Cambridge University Press, 263 p.
  • Harlan, W. B., Cox, A. V., Llewellyn, P. G., Pickton, C. A. G., Smith, A. G., and Walters, R., 1982, A Geologic Time Scale: Cambridge University Press, 131 p.
  • King, C. 2016. A revised correlation of Tertiary rocks in the British Isles and adjacent areas of NW Europe. Geological Society Special Reports vol. 27, Geological Society of London, pp. 724, Link
  • Ogg, J. G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F. M., 2008, The concise geologic time scale: Cambridge University Press, 177 p.
  • Remane, J., 2000, International stratigraphic chart, with explanatory note: International Union of Geological Sciences, 16 p., 1 chart.
  • P. A. Ziegler, 1990. Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe; 2nd edition, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B. V., The Hague, pp. 239.

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