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Geology / Santonian


  • Upper Cretaceous
    • Santonian

Aporrhaidae from the Santonian:

Harpagodidae from the Santonian:

Pugnellidae from the Santonian:

Spinilomatidae from the Santonian:

Spinigeropsis damesi (Müller, 1898); upper Campanian, upper Cretaceous; Stemweder Berg, Dielingen, Stemwede, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany; 1978; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke


  • Al Rawahi, Z. & Dunkley Jones, T. (2019). Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the Late Cretaceous Fiqa Formation, north Oman. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 38, 25–54, 2019
  • Anoh, N.O., & Petters, S.W. (2014). Preliminary investigation of Late Turonian-Early Campanian shallow marine foraminifera of the Mungo River/Logbadjeck Formation, NW Douala Basin, Cameroon. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 99, 442–451
  • Baraboshkin, E.J., Fokin, P.A. (2019). Cephalopods from Santonian/Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) boundary interval of Aksudere section (Mountain Crimea). Bull. Soc. Natur. Moscow. Vol.94. no.4. P.77-84
  • Basse, E. (1939) - Sur quelques mollusques crétacés des Corbières Méridionales. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, Paris (5),9 : 39‑58.
  • Basse, E. & Sénesse, P. (1981-1985) - Sur quelques Invertébrés Crétacés des Corbières Méridionales. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, Paris, (5), 9 : 23-33.
  • Cobban, W.A., Walaszczyk, I., Obradovich, J.D., and McKinney, K.C. (2006). A USGS zonal table for the Upper Cretaceous middle Cenomanian−Maastrichtian of the Western Interior of the United States based on ammonites, inoceramids, and radiometric ages. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1250, 45 p.
  • Cossmann, M. (1902) - Observations sur quelques coquilles crétaciques recueillies en France (5° article). Association française d’avancement des Sciences, Paris, 31° session (Congrès de Montauban) : 539-557.
  • Cossmann, M. (1903) - Observations sur quelquescoquilles crétaciques recueillies en France. (6° article) Association française d’avancement des Sciences, Paris, 32° session (Congrès d’Angers) : 626-632
  • Cossmann, M. (1896-97) - Observations sur quelques coquilles crétaciques recueillies en France. Association française d’avancement des Sciences, Paris (Congrès de Carthage) : 243-269.
  • Delpey, G. (1938) - Gastéropodes recueillis par P. Senesse dans le Santonien supérieur des Corbières. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de Toulouse, 72 : 155-162.
  • Delpey, G. (1942) - Gastéropodes du Crétacé supérieur dans le sud-ouest de la France (Groupe I). Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire naturelle de Toulouse, 77 : 161-197.
  • Ghasemi-Nejad E., Hobbi M.H., Schiøler P. (2006) - Dinoflagellate and foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation (upper Santonian - upper Maastrichtian), Zagros Mountains, Iran. Cretaceous Research · December 2006
  • Helenes, J. & Somoza, D. (1999). Palynology and sequence stratigraphy of the Cretaceous of eastern Venezuela. Cretaceous Research, 20(4), 447–463
  • Ohmert, W. (2006). Radiolarien-Faunen und Obergrenze der Amden-Formation (Coniacium – Santonium) im Tölzer Helvetikum (Oberbayern). Zitteliana, Vol. A 46: pp. 3-40
  • Landman, N.H., Plint, A.G., Walaszczyk, I.; Hooper, B.A., Grifi, M.D., Gröcke, D.R., Trabucho A., João P., Jarvis, I. (2017). Allostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous (Coniacian-Santonian) Western Canada Foreland Basin. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 414.
  • Ovechkina M.N., Watkeys M., Mostovski M.B. (2009) Calcareous nannofossils from the stratotype section of the Upper Cretaceous Mzamba Formation, Eastern Cape, South Africa // Palaeont. afr. Vol.44. P.129–133
  • Raffi, M.E., Olivero, E.B., and Milanese, F.N. (2019). The gaudryceratid ammonoids from the Upper Cretaceous of the James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 64 (3): 523–542
  • Samuel, M.D., Ismail, A.A., Akarish, A.I.M., & Zaky, A.H. (2009). Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Gebel Somar area, north-central Sinai, Egypt. Cretaceous Research, 30(1), 22–34
  • Stoliczka, F. 1865 (1866). Eine Revision der Gastropoden der Gosauschichten in den Ostalpen; Akad. der Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, 52(7), 104-223.
  • Schulz, M.-G., Ernst, G., Ernst, H. and Schmid, F. (1984). Coniacian to Maastrichtian stage boundaries in the standard section for the Upper Cretaceous white chalk of NW Germany (Lagerdorf - Kronsmoor - Hemmoor): definitions and proposals. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 33, pp. 203-215, Copenhagen
  • Yazykova, E. 2002. Ammonite and inoceramid radiations after the Santonian– Campanian bioevent in Sakhalin, Far East Russia. Lethaia, Vol. 35, pp. 51–60

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