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Species / Calyptraphorus Indicus


Original Description of Calyptrophorus indicus Cossmann, M. & Pissarro, G. 1909, p. 44:

  • “Large, slender, ovoid-conical; spire elongated, subulate, conical; whorls scarcely convex, their height not exceeding two-fifth of their width, separated by superficial sutures almost concealed beneath the callous enamel that coats the spire. Body-whorl large, oval, compressed at its base, which is convex, and declivous towards the neck. Aperture narrow, fusiform, anteriorly ending in a sharp rostrum, which happens to be broken in the specimen selected as the type; outer lip thin, aliform, produced backwards along the groove formed by apposition with the backward prolongation of the inner lip, and then merging into the thickened enamel of the columellar margin which spreads over the whole base, and almost on the dorsal surface of the shell, constituting a thick knob, callous and flattened ; this layer of enamel extends up to the apex of the spire, and crosses over to the opposite side, till it reunites with the basal callus, so that only a very small circular area laterally situated remains free from this coating of enamel.”

Locus typicus: Jakhmari peak in the Laki range; east of Kandaira; north of Leilan (Lainyan), Pakistan

Stratum typicum: uppermost beds of Jhirak, “Lowest zone of the upper Ranikot”, lower Eocene

Types: ?

Synonymie: “Rostellaria columbaria, Lamk., var?, 1879 in Blanford and Fedden (not d’Archiac and Haime)”

Comments by Cossmann & Pissarro, p. 45:

  • “Remarks and comparison with other species. -The cast doubtfully referred by d’Archiac and Haime to Rostellaria columbaria, Lamk., does not belong to the present species as stated erroneously by Blanford and Fedden, but probably to a species of Hippochrene, as has already been mentioned when describing Rostellaria Morgani, nobis. Moreover, as already mentioned, this cast is not of Ranikot age, but belongs to one of the overlying Lutetian limestones. The fossils from the Ranikot series included amongst the material described by d’Archiac and Haime usually have the shell preserved. In addition to one form from the Belgian Montian, the species of Calyptrophorus, so far described, are restricted to the Cretaceous of India and Brazil, and the Eocene of Alabama. Calyptraphorus indicus when compared with the two American Eocene species, appears more ventricose and less aciculate than C. velatus, Conrad, less ventricose and with less extraconic spire than C. trinodifer, Conrad. The cretaceous species C. palliatus, Forbes, from Southern India, has a much shorter spire, and a more depressed body-whorl than the eocene fossil from Sind, which it nevertheless resembles owing to extent of its callosity, and the situation of the callous knob; only its base is rounded and anteriorly excavated, instead of oval and declivous as in C. indicus. C. chelonites, White, from Brazil, is too incomplete for comparision: its spire is more conical than that of C. indicus. Mr. Vredenburg informs us that an undescribed form resembling C. indicus, but of much smaller size, occurs in the cretaceous “Cardita Beaumonti beds” of Sind.”

History and Synonymy


Blanford & Fedden, 1880, p. 144:

  • "West of Lainyan the rocks dip to the westward at low angles. A fossil bed, apparently on the same horizon as the lower of the two principal fossiliferous belts to the eastward, abounds in Turritellae, the Rostellaria referred to R.columbaria by D'Archiac and Haime, a Cassis, and a small muricoid shell with elegant raised reticulated sculpture. The Rostellaria is a characteristic species with a prominent tubercle at the upper (posterior) termination of the lip, and the same form, as already mentioned, is found in parts of the Laki range, and appears to be peculiar to this horizon."


  • Blanford, W.T. 1880. The Geology of Western Sind. VII. The Laki Range, including the Bhagothoro, Dháran, Tiyún, Meri, Lohi, Daphro, Eri, and Surjána Hills, together with the country between the Range and the Indus, the Hyderabad Hills, and the tract of hilly country near Jhirak and Tatta; Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, XVII: 122-154, Fulltext
  • Cossmann, M. & Pissarro, G., 1909
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