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Species / Conomurex Luhuanus

Conomurex Luhuanus

Stromboidea


Original Description of Strombus Luhuanus by Linnaeus, 1758, p. 744:

  • "S. testae labro prominulo, dorso laevi, anfractibus rotundatis aequalibus."

Locus typicus: "Habitat in O. Asiae frequens."

Linnaeus cited:

  • Rumph. mus. t. 37. f. S.
  • Argenv. conch. t. 17. f. N.

History and Synonymy

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758: 744) (Strombus)

  • Syn.: Strombus linea nigra Scopoli in Volta, 1787:237
  • Syn.: Strombus luguanus Herbst, 1788: 203, pl. 48 fig. 2 [?err. pro. luhuanus]
  • ? Syn.: Strombus pusillus Anton, 1839: 86 [fide Abbott, 1960, a juvenile specimen not recognisable from description; nomen inquirendum]

1742

in Argenville, 1742, pl. 17, fig. N

in Gualthieri, 1742, pl. XXXI, fig. H

in Gualthieri, 1742, pl. XXXI, fig. I

1766

Luhuana in Rumphius, 1766, pl. XXXVII, fig. S

1787

Description of Strombus linea nigra by Scopoli in Volta, 1787, p. 237:

  • "Strombus linea nigra Scop. testa ex albo, & luteo maculata; labio exteriore tenui: interiore linea fusca longitudinali. Spec. 7. Gualt. Tab. XXXI. fig. H."

1842

Strombus luhuanus in Sowerby, 1842, pl. VII, fig. 54

Strombus luhuanus in Gray, 1842, pl. 2, fig. 6

  • female

1843

Strombus luhuanus in Kiener, 1843, Vol. 4, Strombus pl. 27, fig. 1; "Image courtesy Biodiversity Heritage Library. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org"

1844

Strombus luhuanus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 14, fig. 2

Strombus luhuanus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 16, fig. 1, 2

1850

Strombus luhuanus in Reeve, 1850, Strombus, pl. 9, fig. 19

1972

Strombus (Conomurex) luhuanus in Ladd, 1972, pl. 19, fig. 2

2017

Sanchez-Escalona, K.P., Aliño, P.A., Juinio-Meñez, Ma.A. 2017:

  • Abstract: "Sexual size dimorphism of Strombus luhuanus was explored with Geometric Morphometries. Using 39 landmarks and semi-landmarks, principal component analysis (PCA) showed possible separation of sexes with significant loadings on shoulder and the inner lip. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) cross-validated classification showed males and females can be identified using the generated shape variables with 83.72% and 71.43% accuracy respectively. Examination of the generated mean shape showed that males are slimmer while females are more bulbous with vector changes along the inner lip and shoulder. Sexual shape may be related to differential energy allocation of reproduction with males spending more on finding a mate and females devoting more on egg production. Statistically quantified shape dimorphism will facilitate better understanding of reproductive behaviour and natural population dynamics of this species."

Reports

Jeanette & Scott Johnson about Conomurex luhuanus from Kwajalein Atoll:

  • "Conomurex luhuanus are abundant within Marshall Islands lagoons, but are rarely found on the seaward reefs. Specimens can be found in large numbers on many shallow sand and rubble lagoon interisland reefs as well as on pinnacles at depths from about 1 to at least 16m. Sizes range up to about 60mm. Most specimens have an orange-red aperture, hence the common name (Blood mouth conch). A few, however have apertures either yellow or pure white.
  • top: "Both orange and white aperture specimens"
  • bottom: "Closer shot of a relatively clean-shelled individual. The underside shows the orange red aperture."
  • top: "Like other Strombidae, it has a long proboscis for feeding on algae."
  • bottom: "A pair of algae and sand encrusted individuals with an egg mass, mixed in with that clump of sand in front of the two shells."

All Photos of Kwajalein Atoll-specimens courtesy Scott & Jeanette Johnson, Kwajalein Atoll


Specimens from private collections

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Crash Boat Basin, Apra Harbor, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; On reef, 15 feet, Scuba; 4/1978; 1: 48,9 mm, 2: 49,7 mm, 3: 42,9 mm, 4: 39,2 mm, 5: 41,5 mm; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Apra Harbor, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; 10-15 ft on reef; Coll. Paul Merrill

  • t: 40 mm, Freak, pink lip, 1980
  • m: 50,3 mm, pink lip, 1983
  • b: 56,2 mm, pink lip, 1985

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Apra Harbor, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; 10-15 ft on reef; 1985; Coll. Paul Merrill

  • t: 57 mm, pink lip
  • m: 53 mm, white lip
  • b: 53 mm, orange lip

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); yellow lip; Apra Harbor, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; 10-15 ft on reef; 1985; 50,0 mm; Coll. Paul Merrill

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Apra Harbor, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; 10-15 ft on reef; 1985; 50,1 mm; Coll. Paul Merrill

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Australia; Coll. Guido Poppe

  • Western Australia, off Port Hedland; from fisherman; 1990; 52,8 mm; no. 109915
  • Western Australia, off Port Hedland; from fisherman; 1990; 55,3 mm; no. 109921
  • Western Australia, off Port Hedland; from fisherman; 1990; 57,8 mm; no. 109916

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Coll. Guido Poppe

  • l: Dingo Beach, Queensland State, north east Australia; found in rubble on reef at low tide; 4/1990; 52 mm; Ex-coll. D. & M. Meyer; Coll. Guido Poppe no. 345373
  • m: Fananu Island, Truk Dist, E. Carolines; 59,8 mm; no. 125791
  • r: off Tugela, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa; on mud trawled; 11/1983; 39 mm; Ex-coll. D. & M. Meyer; coll. Guido Poppe no. 149322; Comment G. Poppe: "totally out of range-no one knows why"

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Coll. Guido Poppe

  • l: Honiara, Guadalcanal Island, Guadalcanal Province, Solomon Islands, south-western Pacific; 1984; 60,5 mm; Ex-coll. Philippe Martin; Coll. Guido Poppe no. 236576
  • m: off Tugela, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa; on mud trawled; 11/1983; 40,7 mm; Ex-coll. D. & M. Meyer; Coll. Guido Poppe no. 346034
  • r: albino; Laminusa Island, Sulu Archipelago, Sulu Province, A.R.M.M. Region; collected 10-15 meters deep by local fishermen; 2010; 55,4 mm; no. 568384

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); white lip, with periostracum; Philippines Islands; Coll. Guido Poppe

  • l: Masbate Island, Masbate Province, Bicol Region; collected from local fishermen; 2006; 56,6 mm; no. 316287
  • m: Masbate Island, Masbate Province, Bicol Region; collected from local fishermen; 2006; 56,3 mm; no. 320363
  • r: Olango Island, Cebu Province, Central Visayas Region; 10-25 m; 2012; 48,5 mm; no. 725793

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Wreck Beach, Sattihip, Thailand; 15-25 ft in rubble on sand; 1975; t: 48,5 mm; m: 55,1 mm, b: 52,1 mm; Coll. Paul Merrill

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); (subfossil?); Krabi Province, Thailand, Andaman Sea; 2001; Coll. René Vanwalleghem

  1. 59 mm
  2. 50 mm

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); Japan Islands; 70 mm; Coll. Melinda Gaspar

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); rare colour variations; Philippines Islands; Coll. Guido Poppe

  • l: Zamboanga, Mindanao Island, Zamboanga Peninsula Region; 10-20 m; 2011; 51,8 mm; no. 632254
  • m: Masbate Island, Masbate Province, Bicol Region; collected from local fishermen; 2006; 57,4 mm; no. 316564
  • r: Masbate Island, Masbate Province, Bicol Region; from local fisherman; 2006; 48,0 mm; no. 363433

Conomurex luhuanus (Linnaeus, 1758); juvenile; rare colour variations; Philippines Islands; coll. Guido Poppe

  • t: Bohol Island, Bohol Province, Central Visayas Region; dived 20-35 m; collected by local fishermen; 2009; the young shell, looks like Conus, lip not formed as yet; 41,6 mm; no. 517539
  • m: Olango Island, Cebu Province, Central Visayas Region; 10-25 m; shells live and thrive on sand bottoms with a good mixture of mud, which covers them entirely. Sometimes already collected at a depth of 3 meters, but much more common between 12 and 20 m; 2012; 51,4 mm; no. 681298
  • b: Zamboanga, Mindanao Island, Zamboanga Peninsula Region; 10-25 m; collected by local fishermen; 2009; 24,3 mm; no. 534176

Reports

  • Doug Brennan: "I have seen large groups of S. luhuanus here (Mariana Islands, Saipan), on Guam and in Okinawa."

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