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Species / Lobatus Raninus

Lobatus Raninus


Original Description of Strombus raninus by Gmelin, 1791:

  • "Str. testae labro tenui rugoso superne repando, dorso aurantio transversim striato verrucis coronato, apertura alba nitida."

Locus typicus: Gmelin, 1791 gave no locality; "As the type locality was not given by Gmelin, we here designate it as Puerto Plata, Hispaniola." (Clench & Abbott, 1941, p. 3)

Types: "Gmelin connects his description of raninus with Knorr's figure (Vergnugen Schnecken Muscheln, 6, pl. 29, fig. 8, Nurnberg, 1772). We now select this illustration as the type figure." (Clench & Abbott, 1941, p. 3)

Gmelins reference: Knorr Vergn. 6. t.29, f.8

Roode Kikvorsch in Knorr, 1775, Vol. 6, pl. XXIX, fig. 8

History and Synonymy

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791: 3511) (Strombus)

  • Syn.: Strombus affinis Gmelin, 1791: 3520
  • Syn.: Strombus bituberculatus Lamarck, 1822: 690
  • Syn.: Strombus costosomuricatus Mart. Mörch, 1852: 61
  • Syn.: Lambis curruca Röding, 1798: 64
  • Syn.: Strombus (Lentigo) fetus Jung & Heitz, 2001: 48, figs 25, 26A-D (†)
  • Syn.: Strombus lobatus Swainson, 1823: caption to pl. 153
  • Syn.: Strombus (Tricornis) magolecciai Macsotay & Campos, 2001: 51, pl. 13, figs 19, 21.
  • Syn.: Strombus praeraninus Kronenberg & Dekker, 2000: 5 [unnecessary new name for Strombus wilsonorum Petuch, non Abbott] (†)
  • Syn.: Strombus quadratus Perry, 1811: pl. 12, fig. 1 [not seen, fide Petit, 2003: 46].
  • Syn.: Strombus (Lentigo) aff. raninus Jung & Heitz, 2001: 39, fig. 19 (†)
  • Syn.: Strombus raninus nanus Bales, 1942: 18
  • Syn.: Strombus raninus var. pumilio Mörch, 1877: 20 [nomen nudum].
  • Syn.: Strombus rarimus Bosc, 1830: 235 [err. pro. raninus]
  • Syn.: Strombus rarinus Bosc, 1801: 250 [err. pro. raninus]
  • Syn.: Strombus sulcatus G. Fischer, 1807: 188 [non Strombus sulcatus Holten, 1802]
  • Syn.: Strombus (Lobatus) wilsonorum Petuch, 1994: 75, 84, pl. 16, fig. K [non Abbott, 1967] (†)


Roode Kikvorsch in Knorr, 1775, Vol. 6, pl. XXIX, fig. 8


Lambis curruca Röding, 1798


Bosc, 1801, p. 250:

  • Strombe grenouille, Strombus rarinus. La lèvre mince, rugueuse, recourbée en dessus; le dos orange, strié transversalement, couronné de verrues; l'overture blanche, brillante. Knorr, Verg. 6. tab. 29. fig. 8. On ignore son pays natal."


Strombus sulcatus G. Fischer, 1807


Strombus quadratus Perry, 1811, pl. 12, fig. 1


Strombus bituberculatus Lamarck, 1822

  • Original Description of Strombus bituberculatus by Lamarck, 1822:
    • "St. testa turbinatâ, tuberculiferâ, transversim sulcato-nodulosa, albo et rufo-fuscescente marmorata; ultimi anfractus tuberculis duobus versus labrum aliis eminentioribus, trigonis, posticè compressis; spira abbreviatâ; labro latere crassiusculo, superné in lobum brevem terminato."
  • Locus typicus: "l'Ocean des Antilles"


Strombus lobatus Swainson, 1823, pl. 153

  • Original Description of Strombus lobatus by Swainson, 1823:
    • "S. testa nodulosa; spira brevi, inermi; labio exteriore supra repando, bilobo, margine crasso, reflexo; apertura laevi, rubescente; canale brevi."
    • "Shell nodulous; spire short, unarmed; outer lip above spreading, two-lobed, margin thick, reflected; aperture smooth, reddish; channel short."


Strombus bituberkulatus in Kiener, 1843, pl. ?, fig. 1


Strombus bituberculatus juvenile in Duclos, 1844, pl. 21, fig. 3

Strombus bituberculatus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 21, fig. 4, 5


Strombus bituberculatus in Reeve, 1851, Strombus, pl. 13, fig. 30 a, b


Strombus costosomuricatus Mörch, 1852


Description of Strombus raninus by Clench & Abbott, 1941:

  • "Shell 40 to 110 mm. in length, solid, bluntly spinose, mottled in color and strongly sculptured. Whorls 9.5 to 10, regularly increasing in size. Color a mottled chocolate brown interspersed with a dirty white which renders the whole shell greyish. Occasional specimens have a pinkish tinge. Two or three rather broad and lighter bands occasionally occur around the middle of the body whorl. An aluminum-like glaze is sometimes present on the parietal wall and outer lip. Interior of aperture is usually suffused with light to dark salmon pink. Parietal wall glazed, with a milky white deposit on the lower half, and the color mottlings showing through the upper half. Aperture long, comparatively narrow, slightly oblique, and with the characteristic stromboid notch strongly developed near the base of the outer lip. Basal canal moderately short and recurved toward the right. Outer lip thickened and extended above into a short wing which is generally no higher than the spire. Spire moderately pointed. Suture indistinct and slightly wavy. Nuclear whorls smooth. Spiral sculpture consists of very fine thread-like striae on the early post-nuclear whorls. These later become larger and much coarser, and fan out over the expanded lip in the last whorl. Axial sculpture consists of fine, then rather coarse, costae which on the penultimate and last whorls pinch up to form large blunt spines just below the suture. The last two spines on the body whorl are by far the largest. Sometimes one or two spiral rows of small nodules are formed around the middle of the body whorl. Within the aperture, between the canal and the stromboid notch, there are usually small submarginate costae or wrinkles. On the upper and inside corner of the aperture two or three heavy folds or lamellae run along the inner parietal wall. Operculum much smaller than the aperture, somewhat sickle-shaped, chitinous brown, and without marginal serrations. A thin, horny periostracum generally covers the outer shell, though in some cases it is absent when the specimen has undergone considerable wave action and wear."

Strombus raninus in Clench & Abbott, 1941, pl. 2

Clench & Abbott, p. 3:

  • Records.
  • USA: Pelican Shoals, Lake Worth, off Key West, Florida
  • Bahamas: Bimini Islands; Cat Island; Eleuthera; Grand Bahama; Great Inagua; Long Island.
  • Cuba: Cayo Frances, Caribarien; Cienfuegos.
  • Hispaniola: Monte Christi ; Santa Barbara de Samana; Puerto Plata; Gonave Island.
  • Jamaica: MontegoBay; Port Antonio.
  • Lesser Antilles: Barbados.
  • Central America: Bluefields, Nicaragua; Porto Bello, Panama.
  • South America : Cartagena, Colombia."


Bales, 1942, p. 18:

  • For many years, malacologists who have had occasion to collect at the southern end of Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida, have observed that a large proportion of Strombus raninus Gmelin (formerly known as Strombus bituberculatus Lamarck) in this region were very much smaller than those taken at other stations in Florida. A series taken in April 1936 and another in April 1942 seem to indicate that the dwarf form is constant and has suflScient other differences from the true S. raninus as to constitute a valid subspecies. There are several points of difference: (1) The Lake Worth shells average decidedly smaller. (2) The tip of the lip never extends beyond the apex or spire. (3) A series demonstrates a very much darker eoloration. (4) The grain of the shell substance is much finer; many specimens are so glossy that they appear to be oiled, while normal individuals are much duller in surface texture. Measurements of 93 normal specimens from Key West, Stock Island, Boca Chica Key and East Sister's Key, all located among the Florida Keys, give an average measurement of 79 mm., with the longest specimen measuring 97 mm. in length and the shortest, 57 mm. These measurements are from the base or aperture to the apex. The sex of these was not determined. A series of 248 of the dwarf subspecies gives the following measurements: Number of males examined, 116. Longest shell (from base to tip) 65 mm. Shortest shell, 38 mm. (One in the McGinty collection measures 36.7 mm.) Average of 116 shells, 50 mm. Number of females examined, 132. Longest shell, 67 mm. Shortest shell, 51 mm. Average of 132 shells, 60 mm. All measurements are of fully mature adults. In one hundred per cent of the dwarf subspecies, the lip is shorter than the spire with the exception of three individuals, where they are of equal length. Of the 93 shells of normal S. raninus Gmel., 81 specimens or 87 1/2 % have the lip of the shell noticeably longer than the tip of the spire, while 12 individuals or 12 1/2 % have the tips shorter or of equal length. In view of the above facts it seems reasonable to give this dwarf, subspecific rank as Strombus raninus nanus, new subspecies. Plate 4, figs, a, b."
  • Description as of Stromhus raninus Gmelin (or S. hituberculatus Lamarck) with the following differences: — it is (1) Definitely smaller. (2) Tip of lip never extends above apex of shell. (3) Average coloration darker. (4) Texture much finer and often very glossy.
  • Type and Paratype No. 178696 in the Academy of Natural Sciences. Paratypes in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, in the Bales, McGinty and Koto collections.
  • Type locality: Southern end of Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida.
  • It is evident that the measurements of the small specimen of S. raninus mentioned on p.3 of Clench's monograph of Strombus in Johnsonia are those of this subspecies. Since this Strombus has always been known among conchologists as the "dwarf from Lake Worth," it has been given the name of nanus, i.e., dwarf.

Bales, 1942, pl. 4: "Fig. a, b, Strombus raninus nanus. c, Strombus raninus. Scale mark = 1 Inch"


Martins da Silva, 1985, p. 247 about Strombus raninus:

  • "From the State of Ceara to the State of Piaui. Waters from 30m to 120m, on muddy surface and marine vegetation. Rare."

Specimens from institutional collections

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Islas Chimanas, Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela; 64 mm; Recent; Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Basel no. H17860

  1. Lobatus cf. raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene; Champ de Tir, Port au Prince, Haiti, Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles; Ex-coll. H.G. Kugler, 1928; Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Basel no. H17862
  2. Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Boca Chica Formation, Holocene; Laguna de Boca Chica, Isla Margarita, Venezuela; Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Basel no. H17861
  3. Lobatus cf. raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Early Pleistocene; 250 m west of "The Landlock", North East coast, Barbados, E 662,250/N 1471,780; Ex-coll. P. Büsser, 1978; Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Basel no. H17873

Lobatus aff. raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Gurabo Formation, probably early Pliocene; roadcut at K17, highway from Santiago to San José de las matas, west of bridge over Río Yaque del Norte at Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic; 77 mm; Ex-coll. H. & E. Vokes; Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Basel no. H17806

Specimens from private collections

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Porvenir Island, San Blas Islands, East Panama; dived at 2-4 m; t: 78 mm, b: 76 mm; 7/2012; Coll. Christian Börnke

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); off Camocim, Ceara State, Brazil; collected on fishing nets at 30-40 m; t: 93 mm, b: 92 mm; Coll. Christian Börnke

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Banc des Rochelais, Haiti, Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles; dived at 10-15 m; 2013; t: 96 mm, b:79 mm; Coll. Christian Börnke

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Trujillo Bay, Colon Department, Honduras; at 8 m, fine sand among turtle grass; 56,4 mm; Coll. André Poremski, Copyright Photo Aurantius Collection

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Utila Cays, Utila Island, Islas de la Bahía Department, Honduras; at 8 m, fine sand among turtle grass; 51,3 mm; Coll. André Poremski, Copyright Photo Aurantius Collection

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); freak form; Eleuthera Island, The Bahamas; collected on sand and brass by snorkel at 6 feet, 4/2001; 90,7 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

  • interesting freak specimen with conoid morphology of spire amd common morphology of the body whorl.

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

  • tl: Bahia Honda Key, Monroe County, Florida, USA; in grass at low tide; 85,0 mm
  • tm: Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; taken on sand with seagrasses bottom at 6 m, 2/2009; 42,3 mm;
  • tr: Colombia; by diver; 77,9 mm
  • bl: Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; taken on sand with seagrasses bottom at 6 m, 2/2009; 47,1 mm;
  • bm: Baracoa, Guantanamo Province, Cuba; 2000; 79,1 mm
  • br: Honduras; by diver; 54,1 mm

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); San Blas Islands, East Panama; taken by scuba at 4-6m on sand; 50 mm; 7/1998; Coll. Paul Merrill

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Haiti, Hispaniola Island, Greater Antilles; t: 100 mm, m: 108 mm, b: 80 mm; Coll. Heiko Laertz

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Trujillo Bay, Colon Department, Honduras; Coll. Paul Kanner

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; taken on sand with seagrasses bottom at 6 m, 2/2009; 42,3 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

  • without shoulder knobs, slightly subadult

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; taken on sand with seagrasses bottom at 6 m, 2/2009; 47,1 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Lobatus raninus (Gmelin, 1791); Florida, USA; 73,6 mm; Coll. Chong Chen

Common names

  • Hawkwing Conch (english)


  • Bales, B.R., 1942. A new subspecies of Strombus raninus Gmelin. The Nautilus 56(1): 18-19, 1 pl. Fulltexr
  • Bosc, L.A.G., 1801. Histoire naturelle des Coquilles contenant leur description, les moeurs des animaux qui les habitent, et leurs usages; avec figures dessinées d’après nature. Tome 4. 1-280, pls. 29-36. Paris, Fulltext
  • Bosc, L.A.G., 1830. Histoire naturelle des Coquilles contenant leur description, les moeurs des animaux qui les habitent, et leurs usages; avec figures dessinées d’après nature […] Édition augmentée d’une table alphabétique de toutes les espèces mentionnées dans cet ouvrage, avec les synonymies de M. Lamarck. 1- 263 pls. 11-23. De Roret, Paris.
  • Clench, W. J.; Abbott, R. T. (1941). "The genus Strombus in the Western Atlantic". Johnsonia 1 (1): 1–16, Fulltext
  • Fischer von Waldheim, G., 1807. Museum Demidoff 3: [iv] + ix + 330 pp., 6 pls. Université imperiale: Moscou.
  • Gmelin, 1791; in Linné, Carl von; Beer, Georg Emanuel; Gmelin, Johann Friedrich, 1788-1793."Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis /Caroli a Linneì", 13. edition, Lipsiae [Leipzig]: Impensis Georg. Emanuel. Beer, p. 3511
  • Knorr, 1775; Verlustiging der oogen en van den geest ; of Verzameling van allerley bekende hoorens en schulpen, die in haar eigen kleuren afgebeeld zyn. Amsterdam, 1770-1775, Vol. 6, 1775
  • L.E. Martins da Silva, 1985. The Family Strombidae in Brazil; Shells and Sea Life, vol. 17 (11-12), p. 247-248, Fulltext
  • Aidamalia M. Vargas Lowman, 2003. Aspectos fisiológicos y morfométricos de las especies Strombus raninus y Strombus gracilior: (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) y composición bioquimica y análisis histológico en la especie Strombus raninus; Thesis-Universidad de Panama, 2003, pp. xv, 82 leaves: col. ill. plates, maps

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