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Species / Terestrombus



  • Strombidae
    • Terestrombus Kronenberg & Vermeij, 2002

Original Diagnosis of Terestrombus by Kronenberg & Vermeij, 2002, p. 49:

  • "Small, thin-shelled, spirally and axially almost smooth strombids with rounded, basally unconstricted whorls, thin, determinate, unglazed outer lip, indistinct stromboid notch, and thin columellar callus."

Original Desription of Terestrombus by Kronenberg & Vermeij, 2002, p. 50:

  • "Shell small for family (maximum height about 49 mm), fusiform, basally unconstricted on left side opposite outer lip, very weakly constricted at outer lip of adult. Protoconch of about 2.5 smooth whorls. First one to two teleoconch whorls with about eight fine spiral incised lines, other whorls of spire smooth, rounded, little inflated, with or without weak rounded varices. Last whorl smooth except for fine spiral grooves on base. Terminal adult varix present but low, defined by weak axial ridge behind sharp, unglazed edge of lip. Inner (adaxial) surface of outer lip with or without very fine, short spiral striae. Columellar callus thin, narrow, smooth. Stromboid notch on adult outer lip shallow, poorly defined; projection between stromboid notch and anterior canal narrow, pointed. Adapical canal present or absent. Operculum stromboid, elongate, arched, serrated on convex edge."

Type Species: Lambis fragilis Röding, 1798

Species of this Genus are:

History and Synonymy

Terestrombus Kronenberg & Vermeij, 2002:49

  • Fusicanarium Romagna Manoja, 1980 [nomen nudum]


Mienis, 1975, p. 6:

  • "In his excellent monograph on the genus Strombus in the Indo-Pacific, Dr. R. Tucker Abbott (1960) divided the Strombus (Canarium) terebellatus Sowerby from the West Pacific and S. terebellatus afrobellatus Abbott from East Africa and the Red Sea. Both subspecies are easily recognized by differences in the shell morphology (figs. 1.2). This division was accepted until the Zoological Museum in Amsterdam received two samples of this species collected near Obhur, 47 km north of Jeddah on the Erythraean coast of Saudi Arabia. A study of that material revealed to our surprise the presence of the Pacific subspecies terebellatus s.str. in the Red Sea. (Mienis, 1969). Unfortunately, no other material was available at that time to clear completely the complicated situation: S. terebellatus terebellatus living in the Red Sea and the West Pacific, and S. terebellatus afrobellatus occupying the Indian Ocean. In the last years however, I had opportunity to study many additional specimens from several other Red Sea localities. All these Erythraean specimens belonged to typical terebellatus, thus confirming my previous opinion. Near Eilat, S. terebellatus s.str. is found regularly, but never in large numbers, in sand at a depth of three to six feet. Also near Sharm-el-Sheikh, more to the south in the Gulf of Eilat, it prefers a sandy biotope. No data are known concerning the biotope of the specimens collectd near Jubal Island and Ras Abu Somer along the coast of Egypt. Most Red Sea specimens are rather small (less than 30 mm in height). However, specimens up to 50 mm have been collected in the Eilat area. Therefore, it is impossible to separate the Erythraean specimens from those coming from the western Pacific. Noteworthy is still the striking discontinuous range of Strombus terebellatus terebelatus: Red Sea and West Pacific. An exact similar discontinuity was observed by Abbott (1961) in the distribution of Lambis truncata sebae (Kiener) and by Mienis (1973) in that of Strombus labiatus labiatus (Röding). In all these stromboid taxa the Indian Ocean is populated by a different subspecies which separates the Red Sea populations from those of the Pacific. Lack of fossil records from the Indian Ocean makes it impossible to explain such an interrupted distribution. The fact, however, that Strombus terebellatus terebellatus has been found in the Pleistocene of Massawa indicates that it is not e recent introduction into the Red Sea."


Janssen, Zuschin & Baal, 2011, p. 428:

  • "Abbott (1960) divided this species into two subspecies which should have different ranges: the typical subspecies with Western Pacific distribution, and the newly established subspecies afrobellatus from Eastern Africa and the Red Sea. The main distinguishing features between the two are the fine brown lirae inside the outer lip and the proportionally higher spire of terebellatus s.s. This subdivision was not maintained by later authors. Sharabati (1984) illustrated both forms from the Red Sea and Pickery & Wellens (1998) reported them to have been found sympatric. The figures of Rusmore-Villaume (2008), too, seem to show S. terebellatus s.s. Kronenberg & Vermeij (2002) created the new genus Terestrombus and included S. terebellatus as well as S. afrobellatus which they consider a separate species as long as no more comprehensive material is at hand. As far as there is no convincing evidence that both forms are really distinct species we prefer to follow those authors who regard them as synonyms. The problem should be addressed by molecular genetic methods. Our specimen belongs to the form afrobellatus."


  • R. Janssen, M. Zuschin & C. Baal, 2011. Gastropods and their habitats from the northern Red Sea. (Egypt: Safaga). Part 2: Caenogastropoda: Sorbeoconcha and Littorinimorpha; Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Serie A. 113, pp. 373–509, Fulltext
  • G. C. Kronenberg and G. J. Vermeij (2002 b). Terestrombus and Tridentarius, new genera of Indo-Pacific Strombidae (gastropoda), with comments on included taxa and on shell characters in Strombidae. Vita Malacologica 1(1): 49-54.
  • Mienis, H.K., 1975. Strombus terebellatus from the Red Sea. Hawaiian Shell News 23(1): 6
  • E. Romagna-Manoja (1980 a). Superfamily Stromboidea: VI Part: Subgenus Canarium. The Shell [La Conchiglia] XII(130-131): 12-16.
  • E. Romagna-Manoja (1980 b). Superfamily Stromboidea: VII Part: Subgenus Canarium. La Conchiglia [The Shell] XII(134-135): 15-17.
  • E. Romagna-Manoja (1980 c). Superfamily Stromboidea Part VIII: subgenus Canarium. La Conchiglia [The Shell] XII(136-137): 3-5.

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