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Species / Xenophoridae


  • Xenophoridae Troschel, 1852

Genera are

  • Acanthoxenophora Perilliat & Vega, 2001
  • Aspidophoreas Nappo, Bini & Santucci, 2022
  • Endoptygma Gabb, 1877
  • Misritropis Bandel, 2007
  • Ponderiana Nappo, Bini & Santucci, 2022
  • Stellaria (Schmidt MS) Moller, 1832
  • Onustus Swainson, 1840
  • Xenophora Fischer von Waldheim, 1807

might belong to Xenophoridae

History and Synonymy


Squires & Saul, 2001, Abstract:

  • "The xenophorid Xenophora (Endoptygma) hermax new species is only the second known Cretaceous species of this genus on the Pacific slope of North America, and this species establishes that Endoptygma Gabb, 1877, is a valid taxon."


Simone, 2005, p. 262:

  • "The superfamily Stromboidea is well established morphologically and is supported by 42 synapomorphies (node 1).The family Xenophoridae is undoubtedly a stromboidean taxon, closer to the strombids than to the other families traditionally considered stromboidean, such as the aporrhaids and the struthiolariids."
  • "The families Xenophoridae (node 7) and Strombidae (node 9) are both well supported, by 25 and 13 synapomorphies respectively. The xenophorids, however, presented 8 reversals; this fact can indicate a probable paedomorphous origin for the clade. The genus Onustus is supported by 2 synapomorphies (node 8), the branch includes the type species of the genus (O. indicus). The analysis also includes the type species of the genus Xenophora (X. conchyliophora), the type genus of the family. This result shows a closer relationship of the xenophorids with strombids rather reminder previously considered stromboideans. The stromboidean condition of the xenophorids have been also suggested by other studies, such as on locomotion and shell-righting behavior (Berg,1974), and on protoconch (Kiel & Perrilliat, 2001)."


Bandel & Dockery, 2016, p. 51:

  • "Family Xenophoridae Troschel, 1852"
  • "The low, trochiform shells often have foreign objects attached, such as gastropod or bivalve shells or rocks. Protoconch morphology separates the xenophorids and stromboideans. Xenophora possesses a low, trochiform protoconch with typically three to four whorls and a diameter of 0.9-1.2 mm. The embryonic shell measures 0.08-0.11 mm across (Bandel, 1993b). Based on their protoconch morphology, habits, and anatomy, the Xenophoridae are place here as members of the Stromboidea."


  • Bandel, K. 1993b. Caenogastropoda during Mesozoic times. Scripta Geologica, Special Issue 2, 56 pp.
  • Bandel, K. & Dockery III, D.T. (2016). Mollusca of the Coon Creek Formation in Tennessee and Mississippi with a Systematic Discussion of the Gastropoda; Bull. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist. 33:34-96.
  • Lebrun P., J.-M. Pacaud and P. Courville, 2016
  • R.M. Linsley & E.L. Yochelson, 1973. Devonian Carrier Shells (Euomphalidae) from North America and Germany; Geological Survey Professional Paper, vol. 824, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1973, Fulltext
  • G. Manganelli, V. Spadini & S. Cianfanelli, 2004. The xenophorid gastropods of the Mediterranean Pliocene: the record of the Siena Basin; Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 43(3), 2003, pp. 409-451
  • Morton, J.E. 1949. Adaptations of Xenophora; New Zealand Sci. Rev., no. 7, p. 188-189.
  • Morton, J.E. 1958. The adaptations and relations of the Xenophoridae (Mesogastropoda); Malacolog. Soc. London Proc., vol. 33, pt. 3, p. 89-101, pl. 9.
  • Nielsen, S.N. and DeVries, T.J., 2002
  • Ponder, W.F., 1983. A revision of the recent Xenophoridae of the world and the Australian fossil species (Mollusca: Gastropoda); The Australian Museum Memoirs, 17, pp. 1-126, Fulltext
  • Ponder, W.F., Cooper, J., 1983. A list of the Tertiary and Cretaceous species taxa assigned to the Xenophoridae: A revision of the recent xenophoridae of the world and the Australian fossil species (Mollusca: Gastropoda); The Australian Museum Memoir, 17, pp. 67-74
  • Ponder, W.F., De Keyzer, R.G., 1998. Superfamily Xenophoroidea;Mollusca. The Southern Synthesis, 5, pp. 775-778 in Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B. & Wells, A. (eds), Part B: Fauna of Australia
  • Simone, L.R.L., 2005. Comparative morphological study of representatives of the three families of Stromboidea and the Xenophoroidea (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda), with an assessment of their phylogeny. Arquivos de Zoologia 37 (2): 141-267.
  • Squires, R. L., & Saul, L. R. 2001. Late Cretaceous gastropods from the Pacific slope of North America. Journal of Paleontology, v. 75, p. 46-65, 6 figs.
  • Zhu Min-Da, 1984, Le phénomène d'agglutination dans le genre Xenophora: Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon, 22: 3-49.


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