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Species / Canarium Maculatum

Canarium Maculatum

Stromboidea


Original Description of Strombus maculatus by Sowerby, 1842, p. 30:

  • "S. MACULATUS. (pl. vii. f. 53.) Nuttall. T. ovali, laevi, antice truncata; spira brevi, anfractibus rotundato-nodulosis; apertura angustata, laevi."
  • "A species having the general form of S. mutabilis. It is of a dingy white colour, with obscure purple spots. Sandwich Islands."

Locus typicus: Sandwich Islands (Hawaii, USA)

  • "We restrict the original type locality of "Sandwich Islands" to Kawailoa, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA" (Abbott, 1960:77)

Strombus maculatus Sowerby, 1842, pl. VII, fig. 53


History and Synonymy

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby 2nd, 1842: 30, pl. 7 fig. 53) (Strombus)

  • Syn.: Strombus floridus var. depauperata Dautzenberg & Bouge, 1933: 296.

1844

Strombus maculatus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 10, fig. 12

1850

Strombus maculatus in Reeve, 1850, Strombus, pl. 11, fig. 23

1908

W.H. Dall, 1908: 437.

1936

E. Lamy, 1936:267.

1938

E. Lamy, 1938:131, 137.

1957

Steele, 1957:112.

1960

Abbott, 1960:75-77, pl. 20: figs.13, 14. Abbott, 1960:77

  • 1933 Strombus floridus var. depauperata Dautzenberg and Bouge, Jour. de Conchyl., vol. 77, p. 266 (Makatea [here selected as the type locality], Apataki and Motutunga, Tuamotu Ids.).

1972

Cernohorsky, 1972a:75, pi. 19: fig. 14.

1972

Salvat and Rives, 1975:275, fig. 85.

1980

Rehder, 1980, p. 63:

  • "The examination of 100 specimens from Easter Island has enabled me to substantiate Abbott's statement that a distinct form is present on Easter Island (Abbott, 1960:76). All the specimens I have seen show to a greater or lesser degree the narrow irregular and occasionally medially interrupted axial streaks of dark chestnut brown. Because in its other features, however, I can find no constant differences from those of typical S. maculatus I am considering it to be merely a geographically isolated color form. Abbott is in error in believing that the name S. floridus depauperatus Dautzenberg and Bouge, 1933, proposed for specimens from the northern Tuamotus (Dautzenberg and Bouge, 1933:296), can be applied to this color form. The 5 transverse bands of reddish brown spots of which these authors speak are spirally oriented and not axial as Abbott states; we have specimens from Tikehau Atoll, near Makatea Island (the type-locality) that faindy show these spiral rows of spots."
  • "The distribution of this species is interesting in that throughout most of its range as far as is known to me, it is generally found on atolls, coral islands (Guam, Baker Island), and on barrier reefs of high islands (Raevavae, Isles Gambier, Aitutaki). Otherwise, except for one dead specimen from Huahine that may of course have come from the barrier reef, it is not known from any of the volcanic islands of the Cook Islands, the Society Islands, and the Marquesas. Only at the eastern edge of its range does it inhabit the shores of the volcanic islands of the Hawaiian group and Easter Island."

Reports

Jeanette & Scott Johnson about Canarium maculatum on Kwajalein Atoll:

  • "Canarium maculatum are very common in very shallow and intertidal reef habitats in the Marshalls. They are often overlooked due to their small size of around 15mm."

All Photos of Kwajalein Atoll-specimens courtesy Scott & Jeanette Johnson, Kwajalein Atoll


Keoki Stender on Canarium maculatum from Hawaii

SPOTTED STROMB: Uncommon while alive on algal mats in tidepools and wave benches, but commonly inhabited by hermit crab. Orange-banded or yellow form is rare. Attains 1 inch. Hawaii, Micronesia, SE Polynesia. Formerly known as Strombus maculatus.

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Sharks Cove tidepool, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; Photo Keoki Stender

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Makua, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; Photo Keoki Stender


Specimens from private collections

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in sand between rocks, 3 ft., snorkel; 35,3 mm; 10/2013; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in sand between rocks, 3 ft., snorkel; 30,7 mm; 10/2013; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in sand between rocks, 3 ft., snorkel; 27,0 mm; 10/2013; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in sand between rocks, 3 ft., snorkel; 26,9 mm; 10/2013; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in sand between rocks, 3 ft., snorkel; t: 31,3 mm, b: 31,2 mm; 9/1982; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Shark's Cove, Pupukea Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; dived at 7 m; 32,9 mm; Coll. Frank Nolf no. 01911a

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Barking Sands, Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in a tidal pool on the leeward side of Oahu, very near Kaena Cave state park, in tidal pool, 2 feet, Snorkel, dead; 23,5 mm; 2/1976; Coll. Richard Salisbury

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; Coll. Richard Salisbury

  • t: Near Dillingham Airfield, in beach sand, dead; 21,7 mm; 7/1980
  • b: Haliewa Beach,Oahu Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; in beach drift (dead & faded); 19,2 mm; 4/1976

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Midway Island, Hawaii Islands, USA; on rocks and sand, 4 feet, dead, snorkel; t: 28,2 mm; m: 24,5 mm; b: 15,3 mm; 7/1983; Coll. Richard Salisbury

  • Comment R. Salisbury: "... specimens are from Midway Island, which is 1,311 miles from Oahu, Hawaii. That is quite a considerable distance. The habitat around Midway is coral atoll with a fringing reef. A totally different environment from Oahu. The shells I collected there tended to be lighter in color as they were collected in white sandy areas."

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Neye Island Channel, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; in shallow sand, on reef, 2 feet, snorkel; 19,6 mm; 8/1977; Coll. Richard Salisbury

  • Comment R. Salisbury: "This Canarium species is not very common on Guam Island."

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); South Tipalao, Guam Island, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, USA, North Pacific Ocean; 5-20 ft in silt & rubble in sand trenches; 1985; 1.r: 21,2 mm, 2.r: 15,5 mm; 3.r: 14,7 mm, 4.r: 13,7 mm; Coll. Paul Merrill

  • Comment P. Merrill: "I collected a total of nine years on Guam Island, 1975-1980 & 1982-1986. I only found six Canarium maculatum"

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia; 29 mm; Coll. Frank Nolf no. 01911b

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Mataiva Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia; 16,3 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Tikehau Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia; 17,7 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus maculatus (Sowerby, 1842); Anakaena, Easter Islands; at 2 m. in sand around weeds; 10/1988; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 2343

Strombus (Canarium) maculatus depauperatus Dautzenberg & Bouge, 1933; Easter Islands, Vinapu; at 50 ft. on sand & Algae, by scuba diving; 5/1986; Coll. Kronenberg no. 5720

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); Easter Islands; t: 29 mm, m: 29 mm, b: 25 mm; Coll. Christian Börnke

Canarium cf. maculatum (Sowerby, 1842)


Photos of living specimens

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); eggs; Photo & Copyright Jamie Henderson on flickr

Canarium maculatum (Sowerby, 1842); egg; Photo & Copyright Jamie Henderson on flickr


References

  • R. Tucker Abbott, 1960. 1960. The Genus Strombus in the Indo-Pacific. Indo-Pacific Mollusca, 1(2):33-146, plates 11-117.
  • Cernohorsky, Walter O., 1972. Marine Shells of the Pacific. Volume 2, 411 pages, 28 figures, 68 plates. Sydney: Pacific Publications.
  • W.H. Dall, 1908. Reports on the Dredging Operations off the West Coast of Central America to the Galapagos, to the West Coast of Mexico, and in the Gulf of California, in Charge of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," during 1891, Lieut. Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S.N., Commanding, No. 37: Reports on the Scientific Results of the Expedition to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, in Charge of Alexander Agassiz by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer "Albatross," from October, 1904 to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L. M. Garrett, U.S.N., Commanding, No. 14: The Mollusca and the Brachiopoda. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, 43(6): 205-487, 22 plates.
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. & J.-L. Bouge, 1933. Les Mollusques testacés marins des Etablissements Francais de l'Océanie. Journal de Conchyliologie, 77:41-108, 145-326, 351-469.
  • Field, L. H. (1977) An experimental analysis of the escape response of the gastropod Strombus maculatus. Pac. Sci., 31, 1-11
  • E. Lamy, 1936. Liste des mollusques recueillis par la Mission Franco-Beige a 1'IIe de Paques (1934). Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, series 2, 8(3):267-268.
  • E. Lamy, 1938. Mollusques recueillis a l'lle de Paques par la Mission Franco-Beige (1934). Journal de Conchyliologie, 82:131-143.
  • Rehder, 1980 on Internet
  • Salvat, Bernard, & Claude Rives, 1975. Coquillages de Polynesie. 391 pages, many colored figures, tables, and maps. Papeete: Les Editions de Pacifique.
  • Sowerby, 1842
  • Steele, Paul H., 1957. Easter Island Shells. The Nautilus, 70(4):111-113.

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