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Species / Strombus Pugilis

Strombus Pugilis

Stromboidea


Original Description of Strombus pugilis by Linnaeus, 1758, p. 744:

  • "S. testae labro antico prominente rotundato, laevi, spira spinosa, cauda triloba."
  • ”Faux rubra est, testa crocea.”

Locus typicus: “Habitat ad Jamaicam.”, Montego Bay, Jamaica (designated by Clench & Abbott, 1941)

Types: Linnaean Society of London (Hanley, 1855)

Linnaeus cited:

  • List. conch. t. 906. f. 26
  • Bonan. recr. 3. t. 299.
  • Gualt. test. t. 32. f. B.
  • Argenv. conch. t. 18. f. A.

History and Synonymy

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758: 744

  • Syn.: Drillia actinocycla Dall & Simpson, 1901: 385, pl. 57, fig. 15
  • Syn.: Strombus cornutus G. Perry, 1811: pl. 12, fig. 4
  • Syn.: Strombus nicaraguensis Fluck, 1905: 32-34
  • Syn.: Strombus pugilis peculiaris M. Smith, 1940: 35, 36 left column top row specimen on right [Sp. 500] [= sloani form]
  • Syn.: Strombus sloani Leach, 1814: 52, pl. 22
  • Syn.: Pyramis striata Röding, 1798: 55
  • Syn.: Strombus pugilis worki Petuch, 1993: 51-54, figs. 1-3

1684

[no name on plate] in Buonanno, 1684, fig. 299

1688

[no name on plate] in Lister, 1688, pl. 906, fig. 26

1742

in Argenville, 1742, pl. 18, fig. A

1811

Strombus cornutus Perry, 1811, pl. 12, fig. 4

1814

Strombus sloanii Leach, 1814, pl. XXII

  • Original Description of Strombus sloanii by Leach, 1814, p. 52:
    • "STROMBUS SLOANII. S. anfractu basilari lævis, basi longitudinaliter undulato-sulcato, apice processibus quadratis, compressis, elevatis; anfractibus superis nodosis, longitudinaliter lineatis, lineis elevatis."
    • "Habitat ---—?"
    • "Mus. Brit."
    • "Sloane's Strombus. Basal whirl smooth; base with longitudinal undulating grooves; apex with elevated, compressed, quadrate processes; superior volutions knotted, longitudinally lineated, the lines elevated."

1843

Strombus pugilis in Kiener, 1843, pl. ?, fig. 1

Strombus pugilis var. in Kiener, 1843, pl. ?, fig. 2

1844

Strombus pugilis in Duclos, 1844, pl. 17, fig. 1, 2

Strombus pugilis var. "double carène" in Duclos, 1844, pl. 17, fig. 3

Strombus pugilis var. Sloani in Duclos, 1844, pl. 17, fig. 4

Strombus pugilis (Anatomie) in Duclos, 1844, pl. 17, fig. 5

Strombus pugilis juvenile in Duclos, 1844, pl. 17, fig. 8, 9

Strombus pugilis in Duclos, 1844, pl. 18, fig. 1, 2

1851

Strombus pugilis in Reeve, 1851, Strombus, pl. 16, fig. 39

1901

Original Description of Drillia ? actinocycla by Dall & Simpson, 1901, p. 385:

  • "Shell minute, thin, brilliant (the type immature), with about seven convex whorls separated by a deep suture; the first four whorls are smooth polished, nepionic and translucent, those following with numerous narrow deeply cocave, emphatic, axial ribs, extending from suture to suture but obsolete on the base of the whorl; these are crossed by numerous fine, equal, evenly distributed spiral grooves with equal threadlike interspaces covering the shell; the later whorls are white with three pale yellow-brown spiral bands, one presutural, one peripheral, and one basal, and wider in that order; pillar straight, white.
  • Locus typicus: Mayaguez, Porto Rico; station 134.
  • Dimensions: Lenght, 3,5; maximum diameter, 1,5 mm.

Drillia ? actinocycla Dall & Simpson, 1901, pl. 57, fig. 15

1905

Strombus pugilis nicaraguensis Fluck, 1905

  • Original Description of Strombus pugilis nicaraguensis by Fluck, 1905, p.32:
    • "The shell differs from the typical pugilis, especially in its smaller size, varying very little from 55 to 62 mm. The spire is regularly tuberculated, rather high, acute, and sculptured with distinct revolving raised lines; prominent revolving ridges also mark the entire body-whorl, or in some specimens a large portion of it. The color is uniform dark salmon, except the spire, which tends to whiteness, while the aperture is lighter and brighter than the external parts, and anteriorly has just a suggestion of purple. The epidermis is thin."
  • Locus typicus: "beach between the Principulka and the Wawa rivers, Nicaragua" (Fluck, 1905)
  • Types: "types of this shell are in my own collection and the Boston Society of Natural History" (Fluck, 1905)

1941

Clench & Abbott, 1941, p. 9 on Strombus pugilis nicaraguensis:

  • "Holotype length 61 width (including spines) 41 mm. Wawa River, Nicaragua (Plate 6, left figure).
  • Paratype length 55 width (including spines) 37 mm. Wawa River, Nicaragua (Plate 6, right figure).
  • Types. Holotype no. 87959 and paratype no. 141218, Mus. Comp. Zoöl. Beaches between Principolka and Wawa Rivers, Mosquito coast, Nicaragua. William Fluck collector."

Strombus pugilis nicaraguensis in Clench & Abbott, 1941, p. 8, pl. 6


Reports

Richard Goldberg on Strombus pugilis from Jamaica:

  • "I found an interesting molluscan phenomenon along the south central coast of Jamaica. All of the Strombus we found had dwarf adult shells. No typical size specimens were present. The largest Strombus pugilis was 55mm; the smallest 50mm (lower left). The upper left specimen is 52mm, which was an average size. The right specimen is a 64mm Strombus costatus. Typically specimens are found in sizes 20 to 50mm or more for the costatus and 10 to 25mm larger for the pugilis. I'm not sure what is causing the dwarfism, but warmer than normal water temps might be the culprit causing the mollusks to mature at an earlier stage of growth and create the mature lip at a smaller size."

Copyright Richard Goldberg


Specimens from institutional collections

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; La Isabella Formation, Pleistocene; La Isabella, Paraguana Peninsula, Dominican Republic; Coll. Stichting Schepsel Schelp no. SSS 51465

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Cabo Blanco Formation, Pleistocene; Amuay Bay, Falcon State, Venezuela; Coll. Stichting Schepsel Schelp no. SSS 22216

Strombus cf. pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Pliocene/Pleistocene; Boca Chica, Isla Margarita, Venezuela; Coll. Stichting Schepsel Schelp no. SSS 58335

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Tertiary (Miocene?), Jamaica; Coll. BM(NH) no. G4046; Copyright BM(NH)


Specimens from private collections

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Playa del Carmen, Solidaridad Municipality, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; t: 102 mm, b: 93 mm; at 12 m on sand; Coll. Christian Börnke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Playa del Carmen, Solidaridad Municipality, Quintana Roo State, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; Coll. Virgilio Liverani

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Punta Mizuc, Cancun, Quintana Roo, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; at 15 m on sand; 83 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Florida, USA; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 0278

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; off San Pedro Town, Ambergris Caye, Belize; at 7 ft. in and on sand; 8/1990; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 3730

Strombus pugilis forma nicaraguensis Fluck, 1905; Sandy Bay, Atlántico Sur, Nicaragua; taken on sand and mud at a depth of 2-3 m; 69 mm; 5/1993; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Portobelo Bay, Colon Province, Panama, Caribbean Sea; dredged at 120 ft.; 1987; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 1943

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Portobelo Bay, Colon Province, Panama, Caribbean Sea; dredged at 120 ft.; 1987; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5579

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Colon Bay, Colon Province, Panama, Caribbean Sea; 1971; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5575

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Portobelo Bay, Colon Province, Panama, Caribbean Sea; snorkeling at 2-4 m; 87 mm; 2002; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Puerto Rico Island, USA, northeastern Caribbean Sea; dy diver at 10 m; 76 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Bonaire Island, Netherlands Antilles, The Netherlands, Caribbean Sea; 6/1971: Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5577

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Cactus Bay, Malmok, Aruba Island, Netherlands Antilles, The Netherlands, Caribbean Sea; at 6 m; 1987; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 0901

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; near Malmok, Aruba Island, Netherlands Antilles, The Netherlands, Caribbean Sea; beached; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5580

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Aruba Island, Netherlands Antilles, The Netherlands, Caribbean Sea; t: 60 mm, b: 82 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; juvenile; Malmok, Aruba Island, Netherlands Antilles, The Netherlands, Caribbean Sea; beached; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5580

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Martinique Island, Lesser Antilles; 1989; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 6367

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; off El Pico, Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela; at 1-5 m, in sand and weed; 1984; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 0693

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; off Los Taques, Peninsula del Paraguana, Venezuela; dredged on muddy sand at 12 m; 9/2009; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 6378

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; beach 2 km west of Juan Griego, Isla Margarita, Venezuela; beached after storm; t: 57 mm, b: 72 mm; 3/2008; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Santa Maria, Colombia; 1972; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 1943

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Porto Belo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; at 2-4 m on muddy sand; 3/1985; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 0728

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Porto Belo, Santa Catarina State, Brazil; at 2-4 m on muddy sand; 3/1985; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 0728

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; by diver at 5 m; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 6463

Strombus pugilis worki Petuch, 1993; Espirito Santo State, Brazil; 78 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis worki Petuch, 1993; off Vittoria, Espirito Santo State, Brazil; trawled by shrimp boats from rubble at 20-25 m; 79 mm; 5/2001; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Guarapari, Espirito Santo State, Brazil; muddy sand; 74 mm; 11/1992; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Guarapari, Espirito Santo State, Brazil; in sand at low tide; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 6463

  • Comment Gijs Kronenberg: "South of Amazone river, this should be S. pugilis worki Petuch. Is within variability of S. pugilis"

Strombus pugilis Linnaeus, 1758; Peanut Island, Palm Beach County, Florida; Length 82.22 mm; Coll. Dennis Sargent

  • Comment Dennis Sargent:
    • Both Strombus alatus and Strombus pugilis can exhibit the anomaly that was described as “sloani Leach, 1814” This name has no validity and is considered a synonym.

References

  • Colton, H. S. (1905). Sexual dimorphism in Strombus pugilis. Nautilus, 3, 139-140.
  • Colton, H. S. (1905). Some notes on living Strombus pugilis. The Nautilus 19 (8): 85–88, pl, 3.
  • Dall, W.H. & Simpson, C.T., 1901. The Mollusca of Porto Rico. U.S. Fisheries Commission Bulletin, 20: 351-524, pls. 53-58.
  • Fluck, W. H. 1905. Shell-collection on the Mosquito Coast of Nicaragua. The Nautilus, 19: 32-34.
  • Leach, 1814
  • Petuch, E. J. 1993. Molluscan discoveries from the tropical western Atlantic region. New mollusks from the Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas platform, Caribbean Basin, and Brazil. La Conchiglia 24(266): 51-56.
  • E.J. Petuch, 1998. The Molluscan Fauna of the Wawa River Region, Miskito Coast, Nicaragua: Ecology, Biogeographical Implications, and Descriptions of New Taxa; The Nautilus vol. 111(1), pp. 22-44, Fulltext

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