Original Description of Strombus mutabilis by Swainson, 1821:
- "S. anfractu basali nodoso; spira brevi tantum non laevi; linea sulcata suturae parallela; labio exteriore supra gibbo, margine recto, interiore crasso, cum exteriore striato; apertura pallida rubicunda, basi truncata."
- "Basal whirl nodulous; spire short, nearly smooth, with a sulcated line parallel with the suture; outer lip above gibbous, the margin straight; inner lip thick, both striated; aperture flesh colour; base truncated."
Locus typicus: East Indies (Swainson, 1821), Abbott, 1960, p. 74: "Cebu City, Cebu Island, Philippines"
Stratum typicum: recent
Types: "The whereabouts of Swainson's type of mutabilis is unknown." (Abbott, 1960, p. 74)
Strombus mutabilis Swainson, 1821, pl. 71, fig. 1, 4
Swainson, 1821 cites:
- Seba, tab. 61, fig. 26, 27, 32, 33, 54; tab. 62, fig. 42, 43(?)
- Martini 3, tab. 77, 799, fig. 78, 807
- Knorr 2, 14, fig. 3
- Rumphius 37, W
History and Synonymy
Canarium mutabile (Swainson, 1821: pl. 71) (Strombus)
- Syn.: Conarium [sic!] mutabilis Sw. Jousseaume, 1888: 174 [in Muricidae]
- Syn.: Strombus epimellus Duclos in Chenu, 1844: 3, pl. 16 figs 11-12, pl. 22 figs 5-6.
- Syn.: Strombus (Canarium) flammeus Link, Issel & Tapparone Canefri, 1876: 346
- Syn.: Strombus floridus Lamarck, 1822: 211
- ? Syn.: Strombus floridus var. minima Sowerby 1st, 1825: 68 [non Linnaeus, 1771]
- Syn.: Strombus flosculosus Mörch, 1852: 63
- Syn.: Strombus mutabilis citrinus auct. [probably nom. nud., not available]
- Syn.: Strombus (Canarium) mutabilis form mutica Romagna-Manoja, 1980b: 15 [unavailable; published as a varietal name after 1960, ICZN art. 15.2]
- Syn.: Strombus (Canarium) mutabilis forma rufescens Prelle, 2006: 16 [unavailable; published as a varietal name after 1960, ICZN art. 15.2]
- Syn.: Strombus floridus form zebriolatus Adam & Leloup, 1938: 117, pl. 1 fig. 7
- ? Syn.: Strombus ostergaardi Pilsbry, 1920 :320, pl. 12, fig. 27, 28
Canarium var 5 in Rumphius, 1766, pl. XXXVII, fig. W
Strombus floridus Lamarck, 1822, Anim. s. vert.; VII, p.211
Strombus floridus in Wood, 1828, pl. 4, fig. 5
Strombe fleuri (Strombus floridus Lam.) in Kiener 1843, pl.32, fig. 1
Strombe fleuri (Strombus floridus Lam.) in Kiener 1843, pl.32, fig. 1 a, 1 b, 1 c
Strombus epimellus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 16, fig. 11, 12
Strombus floridus in Reeve, 1850, Strombus, pl. 7, fig. 11 a, b
Strombus floridus in Reeve, 1850, Strombus, pl. 7, fig. 11 c, d
Original Description of Strombus ostergaardi by Pilsbry, 1920 , p. 320:
- "The shell is somewhat pear-shaped, rather solid, white in the only examples known, which are long-dead shells. The rather short spire is concavely conic. In the most perfect example the penult whorl is weakly angular above the suture, with very weak, coarse nodes; the next earlier whorl is distinctly angular and tuberculate; above this the tubercles become closer, longer, so that the next two whorls are costate. The conic summit, of about 3 convex whorls, is smooth. The last whorl is very slightly compressed between face and back. It is slightly swollen behind the outer lip, somewhat flattened preceding the swelling, on the ventral face strongly convex above. It is smooth except for oblique grooves around the lower part and more or less distinct spiral threads near the lip. The suture descends in the last third of a whorl, ascending a little at its termination. The aperture is narrow. Outer lip not excavated posteriorly, having a moderate sinus anteriorly; closely lirate within. The inner lip is thick, with well defined edge, and is regularly lirate throughout."
Dimensions: fig. 27: "Length 24.5, diameter 12 mm."; fig. 28: "Length 31, diameter 16 mm."
Localities: "Honolulu Harbor, from the dredger dump on the Harbor side of Sand Island, J. M. Ostergaard. Also from the Kailua coast, on the north side of Oahu, W. A. Bryan."
Comment Pilsbry, 1921, p. 321:
- "This species is less distorted than S. gibberulus L., with a lirate columellar callus, and no excavation of the outer lip posteriorly. S. bulbulus Sowb. is more closely related, but it has a smooth, thinner and less extended columellar callus, and smooth, convex whorls of the spire. While the specimens have the appearance of fossils, it is likely that the species is still to be found living. The single one before me from Kailua is 21.3 mm. long, and has the short spiral threads over the swelling behind the lip more distinct. In the largest specimen there seems to be but one nodulose intermediate whorl of the spire, the whorls having the usual impressed spiral line below the suture; but as the spire is quite short, the nodules may be concealed by the enveloping whorls. The sculpture of the spire described above is therefore not a constant feature.
Etymology: "This stromb was first found by Mr. Ostergaard in 1905. Subsequently he found three more."
Strombus ostergaardi Pilsbry, 1920 ,pl. 12, fig. 27-28
Original Description of Strombus (Canarium) floridus depauperata by Dautzenberg & Bouge 1933, p. 296:
- "Cette variété diffère du Str. floridus par sa forme plus allongée, sa spire plus courte, l'absence de tubercules sur le haut du dernier tour, le bourrelet externe de son labre moins développé et enfin par sa coloration blanche ou jaunâtre avec cinq bandes transversales de petites taches d'un roux très clair. L'intérieur de son ouverture est blanc et non pas rosé comme celle du floridus."
- Locus typicus: Makatea!; Apataki!; Motutunga!.
Jeanette & Scott Johnson about Canarium mutabile from Kwajalein Atoll:
- "Canarium mutabile are abundant on very shallow lagoon and seaward reefs in the Marshalls, more common in the lagoons. They range from the intertidal down to at least 10m and can be found on sand, rubble, or hard reef substrate, or even in Halimeda plants. Most shells are mostly whitish in color, but a few, such as the ones figured below, can be quite pigmented."
All Photos of Kwajalein Atoll-specimens courtesy Scott & Jeanette Johnson, Kwajalein Atoll
Specimens from private collections
Canarium mutabile; Fort Dauphin, Madagascar; Coll. Han Stoutjesdijk
Canarium mutabile; El Harish, Egypt, Mediterranian; 34 mm; Coll. Ulrich Wieneke
Strombus (Canarium) mutabilis ostergaardi Pilsbry, 1921; Kaneohe, Oahu, Hawaii, USA; Kaneohe sewer trench excavation, imbedded in hard pack matrix of sand / Limestone walls of trench blocks; 10/1994; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg No. 5130
Canarium mutabile; Olango Island, Philippines; 34 mm; Coll. Aart Dekkers STR1755