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Species / Persististrombus Latus

Persististrombus Latus

Stromboidea


Original Description of Strombus latus by Gmelin, 1791, p. 3520:

  • "latus. 35. Str. testae labro prominulo inferne bis emarginato, spirae anfractu primo medio laevi utrinque transversim striato, reliquis nodis obtusis coronatis. Habitat ---"

Gmelin, 1891:3520 cited:

  • "Seb. mus. 3. t. 63. f. 4. 5."

Seba, 1758, pl. 63, fig. 4, 5


History and Synonymy

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791: 3520) (Strombus)

  • Syn.: Strombus adansonii Defrance, 1827: 115
  • Syn.: Strobus [err. pro Strombus] auratus Spalowsky, 1795: 43-44, pl. 6 fig. 9
  • Syn.: Strombus bubonius Lamarck, 1822: 203
  • Syn.: Lambis carnaria Röding, 1798: 64
  • Syn.: Lambis carnea Röding, 1798: 63
  • Syn.: Strombus dilatatus Lamarck, 1822: 203 [non Strombus dilatatus Swainson, 1821]
  • Syn.: “Strombus epidromis L., 1758”. Willmann et al. in Müsch et al.: 570 [identification for Seba, pl. 63, figs 4, 5]
  • Syn.: Strombus fasciatus Gmelin, 1791: 3510 [non Strombus fasciatus Born, 1778]
  • Syn.: Strombus latus f. arenensis Bernard, 1982: 17 [unavailable; published as a varietal name after 1960, ICZN art. 15.2]
  • Syn.: Strombus latus arenosus Rolán & Ryall, 1999: 28 [err. pro Strombus latus arenensis Bernard, 1982; nom. nud.]
  • Syn.: Strombus latus f. minima Bernard, 1984: 38, pl. 9, fig. 43b. [unavailable; published as a varietal name after 1960 ICZN art. 15.2, junior homonym of Strombus minimus Linnaeus, 1771]
  • Syn.: Strombus latus f. portgentilensis Bernard, 1984: 38, pl. 9, fig. 43d. [unavailable; published as a varietal name after 1960, ICZN art. 15.2]
  • Syn.: Strombus mediterraneus Duclos, 1844: pl. 29, figs 4, 5
  • Syn.: Strombus rosaceus Martyn, 1784: [not available, ICZN, 1957 opinion 456]

1757

Knorr, 1757, vol. 2, pt. 2, pl. 17, fig. 1

1758

Seba, 1758, pl. 62, fig. 6, 7, 8

1777

Martini, 1777, pl. 82, fig. 833, 834

Martini, 1777, pl. 91, fig. 893

1795

Original Description of Strobus [sic, err. pro Strombus] auratus (Die Goldzeug-Flügel-Schneke[sic]) by Spalowsky, 1795, p. 43:

  • "Testa ovata, crassa, laevis, anfractibus septem nodoso-coronatis, dorso infimi cingulis duobus obsolete nodosis cincto, spira conica, labro grasso, supra parum prominente obtuso, infra bilobo, labio reflexo adnato lato tenui, basi effusa brevi."
  • "Die Schale ist kurz exförmig, dick und glatt, die sieben Windungen sind mit Knoten gekrönt, der Rücken der untersten Windung ist noch überdies mit zwey etwas unmerklich knotigen Gürteln umgeben, der Zopf steigt kegelförmig in eine Spitze auf, die äußere Lippe ist dick. stumpf, oben wenig hervorragend, unten zweylappig, die Spindellippe überschlagen, angewachsen, ungleich ausgebreitet, aber dünn, die Basis kurz und buchtig ausgeschnitten."
  • "Color aurantius, maculis flammeis albis. Ob similitudinem hujus picturae com opere phrygio aureo huic speciei nondum descriptae a nobis nomen auratae data est."
  • "Farbe oraniengelb, mit weissen flammigen Flecken. Wegen der Ähnlichkeit dieser Gestalten mit einem goldnen Zeuge haben wir dieser noch nicht beschriebenen Art diesen Namen gegeben."
  • "Patria: an India orientalis ?"
  • "Vaterland: unbekannt; wahrscheinlich Ostindien."
  • "Mensura: 4 poll. 4 lin. long. 3 p. lat."
  • "Grösse: 4 Zoll 4 Linien lang, und 3 Z. breit."

Strombus auratus (Die goldzeug Flügelschnecke) Spalowsky, 1795, pl. 6, fig. 9

1798

Original Description of Lambis Carnea by Röding, 1798, p. 63:

  • "808 | 25 L. Carnea. Die hornigte Flügel-Schnecke. Gmel. stromb. fasciatus, sp. 9. Martini 3. t. 82. f. 833. 834. 8 St."

Original Description of Lambis Carnaria by Röding, 1798, p. 64:

  • "809 | 26 L. Carnaria. Die Fleischfarbene Flügel-Schnecke. Gmel. stromb. fasciatus, sp. 9. Martini 3. t. 91. f. 893. 3 St."

1822

Lamarck, 1822, p. 203

Original Description of Strombus bubonius by Lamarck, 1822:

  • "St. testa ovata, subturbinata, tuberculata et nodulifera, flavescente, albo-maculata, roseo-fasciata; spira conica, obtusiuscula, nodulosa, labrum superante."
    • Locus typicus: "l'Océan des Antilles" (Lamarck, 1822)

1827

Description of Strombus latus by Defrance in Blainville, 1827, vol. 51, p. 115:

  • "Le Strombe aile dilatée: S. latus, Gmel., p. 3520, n.° 35; Seba, Mus., 3, tab. 63, fig. 4 et 5. Coquille ovale-oblongue, renflée, lisse, ŕ spire assez courte, nodulifčre; bord droit dilaté, s'appuyant sur celle-ci, rude et un peu épaissi sous le bord. Couleur jaune avec trois séries de taches blanches. Patrie inconnue."

Original Description of Strombus Adansonii by Defrance in Blainville, 1827, vol. 51, p. 115:

  • "Le S. Kalan; S. Adansonii, Sénég., page 137, pl. 9. Coquille épaisse, pesante, trčs-grande (huit ŕ neuf pouces de long sur quatre ŕ cinq de large), ŕ spire sillonnée, tuberculée, pointue et assez courte; le dernier tour onde et couronné de deux ŕ quatre rangs de tubercules plus gros sur le postérieur; bord droit épais, obtus, sans bourrelet, ne dépassant gučre le dernier tour, et sans crénelures ou digitations avant le sinus. Couleur fauve, ondée de marbrures blanches, quelquefois rouge sur les tubercules, sous un épiderme roux et assez mince."
  • "Adanson, qui a trouvé cette espčce communément dans les rochers de l'île de Gorée sur la côte du Sénégal, fait une observation importante en disant que ce n'est que lorsqu'elle a atteint la grosseur de trois pouces, que le bord droit s'étend et s'épaissit, et que cependant parmi les coquilles de ce volume il y en a qui, comme les jeunes, ont le bord extręmement mince, tranchant , sans évasement et sans canal; ce qui leur donne un aspect tout particulier."

1843

Strombus dilatatus in Kiener, 1843, pl. ?

Strombus bubonius in Kiener, 1843, pl. ?

1844

Strombus bubonius in Duclos, 1844, pl. 12, fig. 3, 4

Strombus mediterraneus in Duclos, 1844, pl. 29, fig. 4, 5

1850

Strombus bubonius in Reeve, 1850, Strombus, pl. 12, fig. 27

1885

De Gregorio, 1885 defines: Strombus sferracavallensis De Gregorio, 1885:343

  • Locus typicus: Sferacavallo near Palermo, Italy
  • Stratum typicum: Pleistocene

1913

Strombus bubonius In Gignoux, 1913, pl. VI, fig. 1, 2, 3

  • 1: "Couches ŕ Strombes de Tarente"
  • 2, 3: "Couches ŕ Strombes de Ravagnese, prčs Reggio; individus jeunes"

2009

De Torres et al., 2009, p. 149:

  • "Persististrombus latus Gmelin, 1791 is the most cited fossil gastropod from the Pleistocene marine-raised deposits of the Mediterranean realm. It has usually been referred to as Strombus bubonius Lamarck 1822, although Strombus latus Gmelin 1791 is the senior synonym. However, according to the recent taxonomic revisions of Strombus species undertaken by Kronenberg & Lee (2007) and Harzhauser & Kronenberg (2008), this gastropod is considered to belong to the genus Persististrombus.
  • According to Cuerda (1987), the association of P. latus with other mollusc species constituted the Senegalese Faunal Complex, marking Mediterranean seawater warming during interglacial episodes along the Pleistocene, which corresponded to periods of high sea levels. In fact, today P. latus is restricted to the Eastern Atlantic Region, occurring in an area from the Rio d’Oro to Angola and limited in the north by the Canary Current and in the south by the Benguela Current. Its northern distribution borders are the Cape Verde Islands (Kreipl & Poppe 1999). An average temperature of 25°C favours this gastropod; however, it tolerates a temperature range from 16 to 31°C. Its average lifespan of 3–5 years is characterized by a cyclic growth rate, depending on the seasonality of the sea surface temperature.
  • Due to its reproductive strategy, extant P. latus is a gregarious species (Stoner 1994; Mendes-Lopes 2002). The continuous presence of fossil P. latus lumachelle, a paucispecific tanatocoenosis linked to storm beach deposits, reinforces the notion that fossil P. latus inhabited shallow waters (Meco 1977).
  • Extant P. latus inhabit sandy-muddy bottoms and seagrass meadows and follows detritivorous and vegetarian feeding strategies (Lozac’hmeur & Mascarenhas 1985), typically in waters with normal salinity (Guerreiro 1994; Guerreiro & Reiner 2000; Mendes-Lopes 2002). However, in the Gulf of Guinea, Meco (1977) found P. latus representatives in zones with freshwater input and consequently lower salinity. Although P. latus inhabits soft bottoms, our findings demonstrate that fossil P. latus also colonized rocky bottoms."

Specimens from institutional collections

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); 121 mm; Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Molinar, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; record size for a complete specimen in Balearic; Coll. Cuerda in SHNB; Published in Cuerda (1975, 1987, 1989); Photo José Juárez Ruiz

Strombus coronatus Defrance, 1827; Larnaca, Larnaca District, Cyprus Island; Coll. NHMW no. 1861/XLII/8

Strombus coronatus Defrance, 1827; Larnaca, Larnaca District, Cyprus Island; Coll. NHMW no. 1861/XLII/10


Specimens from private collections

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Senegal, West Africa; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5404

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Senegal, West Africa; Coll. Gijs Kronenberg no. 5405

Persististrombus latus forma latus (Gmelin, 1791); Senegal, West Africa; 143 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); 120 mm; Senegal, West Africa; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus forma portgentilensis Bernard, 1984; Gabon, west coast of Central Africa; 97 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

  • Comments by Virgilio Liverani: sorry I do not concur, the forma portgentilensis is more smooth on the dorsum, with pointed horns at shoulder, like the Pleistocene ones from Almeria.

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Săo Tomé and Principe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, western equatorial coast of Central Africa; taken by fishermen in nets; 95 mm; 2001; Coll. Paul Merrill

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Cape Verde Islands, Republic of Cabo Verde, central Atlantic Ocean; 115 mm; Coll. Chong Chen

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Isla Sao Vicente, Cape Verde; 100 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Gabon; on sand; 99 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Port-Gentil, Gabon; 68 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Kribi, Cameroon; 101 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Conakry, Guinea; 105 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Port-Gentil, Gabon; 99 mm; Coll. Francesco Giovanoli

Persististrombus latus forma arenensis Bernard, 1982; Mauritania, Maghreb Region, western North Africa; found outside the known distribution; 124 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS7a; Cerro Largo, Almería, Spain; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

  • tl: 50 mm; juvenile
  • tr: 60 mm; dwarf adult specimen
  • b: 110 mm

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS7a; Cerro Largo, Almería, Spain; 95 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS7a; Cerro Largo, Almería, Spain; 53 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS7a; Cerro Largo, Almería, Spain; 91 mm; freak specimen with double tuberculation; coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); freak; Pleistocene; Spain; 90 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS7a? (142 k.a.); Alicante, Alicante Province, Spain; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

  • l: 91 mm, El Pinet
  • r: 95 mm, Cabo Huertas

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, early OIS5e; Platja de Sant Joan, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 105 mm; one of the best specimens found in the North of the island; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Camp de Mar, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 82 mm; mostly complete young adult specimen; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Molinar, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 77 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Peguera, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

  • l: 82 mm; internal mould
  • b: 60 mm

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Peguera, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 64 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Las Rocas, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 76 mm; Coll José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Palmanova, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; t: 79 mm, b: 80 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Camp de Tir, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 104 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Can Canals, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 67 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Can Vanrell, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 86 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Can Vanrell, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 88mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Can Vanrell, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 88mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Can Vanrell, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 87mm; morphotype with very high spiral, close to forma arenensis; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Punta Tinent (label as Cala Blava), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 97 mm; found in the 1950's; Cuerda-collection in SHNB; photo José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Punta Tinent, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 82 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); juvenile specimen; Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 124 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); juvenile specimen; Pleistocene, OIS5e; Karphatos Island, Greece; 57 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; Regio Calabria, Italy; 88 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, early OIS5e (135 ka); Jandia, Fuerteventura Island, Spain; 109 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, early OIS5e (135 ka); La Guirra, Fuerteventura Island, Spain; 125 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS 5e (135 ka); Matagorda, Lanzarote Island, Spain; 128 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e (?); San Andrés, Tenerife Island, Spain; 69 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS 5e; San Cristobal, Gran Canaria Island, Spain; Morphotype with rare divided peristome present in some specimens from Canary Islands but never seen in Mediterranean ones; 113 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, probably OIS5c (100 k.a.); Carnatge (U3), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 69 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, probably OIS5c (100 k.a.); Carnatge (U3 or U4), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 100 mm; Coll. Cuerda in SHNB; Photo José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, early OIS5e (135 k.a.); Carnatge (U1), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 110 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, early OIS5e (135 k.a.); Carnatge (U1), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 105 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e (117 k.a.); Carnatge (U2), Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; slighly restored; 100 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Punta Negra, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

  • l: 65 mm; eroded adult specimen with anormal peristome, result of cicatrizated damage
  • r: 70 mm; small adult with the normal size of the population represented in the locality

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e; Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; typical portgentilensis specimen; 93 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e (probably 117 k.a.); Son Mosson, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 97 mm; Coll. José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, end of OIS5e (most probably 117 k.a.); Son Mosson, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; 110 mm; Coll. Cuerda in SHNB; Photo José Juárez Ruiz

Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791); Pleistocene, OIS5e; near Cala Gamba, Majorca Island, Balearic Islands, Spain; incomplete adult slized during geological probing in the 60's; 60 mm; Coll. Muntaner; Photo José Juárez Ruiz

Strombus bubonius Lamarck, 1822; Tyrrhenian, 97.000 years old, Pleistocene; San Juan de los Terreros, Almeria, Almeria Province, pain; 82 mm; Coll. Aart Dekkers no. STR9063


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