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Species / Persististrombus



  • Strombidae
    • Persististrombus Kronenberg & Lee, 2007

Type species (by original designation): Strombus granulatus Swainson, 1821, non Strombus granulatus Röding, 1798 [nomen oblitum, see Kronenberg & Lee, 2005]

Original Description of Persististrombus by Kronenberg & Lee, 2007:

  • "Shell of moderate size for family, fusiform, shoulder knobs distinct on body whorl, slightly expanded outer lip with sharp, unglazed rim and no extensions, regularly divided callus on columella, anterior canal short, posterior canal or groove absent or obsolete. Protoconch elongate and conical with four to five smooth whorls. Adaxial side of outer lip smooth, plicate, or granulate."

Persististrombus species are

might belong to Persististrombus

Persististrombus species:

  1. row: P. aldrichi (Dall, 1890); P. baltrae Garcia-Talavera, 1993; P. cf. baltrae; P. barrigonensis (Jung & Heitz, 2001);
  2. row: P. bernielandaui (Harzhauser, 2007); P. cf. bernielandaui (Harzhauser, 2007); P. chipolanus (Dall, 1890); P. cf. chipolanus (Dall, 1890);
  3. row: P. coronatus (Defrance, 1827); P. coronatus var. perspinosonana (Sacco, 1893); P. daviesi (Dey, 1962); P. deperditus (Sowerby, 1840);
  4. row: P. exbonellii (Sacco, 1893); P. gijskronenbergi (Harzhauser, 2007), P. granulatus (Swainson, 1822); P. inflexus (Eichwald, 1830);
  5. row: P. insulanus (Jung & Heitz, 2001); P. kronenbergi (Harzhauser, 2009); P. lapugyensis (Sacco, 1893); P. latus (Gmelin, 1791);
  6. row: P. mardieae (Petuch, 2004); P. nodosus (Borson, 1820); P.(?) obliteratus (Hanna, 1926); P. pannonicus Harzhauser & Kronenberg, 2013;
  7. row: P. praecedens (Schaffer, 1912); P. preoccupatus (Finlay, 1927); P. quilonensis (Dey, 1962); P. radix (Brongniart, 1823);
  8. row: P. toroensis (Jung & Heitz, 2001); Strombus antiochensis Roman, 1940

History and Synonymy

  • Syn.: Afristrombus Bandel, 2007: 144
  • Syn.: Granostrombus Bandel, 2007: 148 [nom. nud.]
  • Syn.: Thetystrombus [sic] Dekkers, 2007a: 55; also spelled as Thethystrombus Dekkers, 2007b: 74]


Harzhauser, 2007, p. 103:

  • "The morphologic characters suggest that the Oligocene Strombus bernielandaui might have been the ancestor of the Aquitanian Strombus gijskronenbergi and the Early to Late Miocene Strombus preoccupatus (see Beets 1986 for stratigraphic range). The latter seems to be followed by Strombus quilonensis. This purely Indo-Pacific lineage might be rooted in the Oligocene to Miocene Strombus radix-bonelli group of the Western Tethys (pers. comm. Gijs Kronenberg)."


Kronenberg, 2008, p. 340:

  • "The extensive bending of the rim of the outer lip is however not observed in Thersistrombus thersites. Bandel (2007: 147) mentioned the resemblance of the spire and form of the outer lip of T. thersites with those of Persististrombus granulatus (Swainson, 1822). Although at first glance this may seem far-fetched, but going back into the fossil record, there may indeed be a connection with Persististrombus. Species allocated to Persististrombus are known from the Chattian (late Oligocene) and Aquitanian (early Miocene) of Oman, respectively P. bernielandaui (Harzhauser, 2007) and P. gijskronenbergi (Harzhauser, 2007). Another species allocated to Persististrombus from the Aquitanian of Tanzania is currently under description (Harzhauser, in press). Harzhauser et al. (2007) mentioned only Strombus preoccupatus Finlay, 1927 as a member of this radiation stating that S. preoccupatus was the last surviving species of that radiation. Without critically reviewing the following nominal taxa, as this is beyond the scope of this paper, Strombus sedanensis Martin, 1899 from the early Miocene of Java and Pakistan Abbott (1960: 102) and the Langhian and Serravilian, middle Miocene, of Borneo (Raven, 2002: 13); S. preoccupatus from the early and late Miocene of Java and Borneo; S. daviesi Dey, 1962 from the Miocene Quilon beds of Kerala, SW India; and both S. quilonensis Dey, 1962, and S. cossmanni Dey, 1962, also from the Miocene Quilon beds of Kerala, SW India; are tentatively considered part of the Indo Pacific radiation of Persististrombus by the present author. Whether or not the name Persististrombus should be used for these species is not yet resolved."


Harzhauser & Kronenberg, 2013, p. 797 about Persististrombus:

  • "Oligocene to Holocene biogeography of Persististrombus. — The roots of the genus reach back to the Tethyan Oligocene. The oldest species that can be attributed to Persististrombus is Strombus radix Brongniart, 1823, from the Piedmont Basin and the Vicentin in Italy (Rovereto 1900; Fuchs 1870), the Mesohellenic Basin in Greece (MH own observation), and Bulgaria (Karagiuleva 1964). In the west, it reached even the Adour Basin in France (Lozouet and Maestrati 1986). Its easternmost occurrences are recorded from the Rupelian of the Central Iranian Esfahan−Sirjan Basin and the Kutch Basin in India (Harzhauser 2004; Harzhauser et al. 2009). This Oligocene species is unknown so far from the Paratethys. Already during the Oligocene, an eastern lineage established in the Rupelian Acropora reefs of the Arabian Peninsula, represented by the small and spiny Persististrombus bernielandaui (Harzhauser, 2007). This lineage continued into the Early Miocene and is represented by P. gijskronenbergi (Harzhauser, 2007) in Oman and P. kronenbergi Harzhauser, 2009 in Tanzania during Aquitanian times. Burdigalian species in this lineage are P. deperditus (Sowerby, 1840) in Kutch in northern India and P. quilonensis (Dey, 1961) from Kerala in southern India. The last known species in the Indo−West−Pacific Region (IWP) is P. preoccupatus (Finlay, 1927) from the Late Miocene of Borneo (Beets 1941). Thus, the genus seems to have become extinct in the IWP around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. However, a genus still pending description that probably arose from a Persististrombus ancestor, was present in Indonesia during the Miocene, and persisted until the latest Pliocene (GCK, unpublished data). Transatlantic migration of the genus into the Americas took place during the Early Miocene when Persististrombus appears as P. goeldii (Ferreiro and Cunha, 1957) in the Paribas Formation of Brazil, and as P. aldrichi (Dall, 1890), P. chipolanus (Dall, 1890), and P. mardieae (Petuch, 2004) in the Chipola Formation of Florida (Petuch 2004). After a major stratigraphic gap, the genus re−appears in the Americas and enters the eastern Pacific. At present it is not clear whether Persististrombus got extinct and re−invaded the Americas or that specimens are not preserved or not yet discovered. Based on the morphology of P. granulatus, which is rather close to P. radix and P. nodosus we are inclined to believe the latter to be themost likely scenario. Afterwards, P. toroensis (Jung and Heitz, 2001) and P. insulanus (Jung and Heitz, 2001), possibly synonyms of P. granulatus (Swainson, 1822), are reported from the Pliocene of Panama. P. barrigonensis (Jung and Heitz, 2001), subsequently synonymized with P. granulatus by Landau and Silva (2010), occurs in the Late Miocene or Pliocene of Venezuela, and P. obliteratus (Hanna, 1926) in the Pliocene of California (all data from Wieneke et al. 2010, see also Kronenberg and Lee 2007). Persististrombus granulatus has been reported from the Lower Pliocene member of the Imperial Formation in California (Powell, 1988), and survives to the Recent in the Panamic province (Emerson and Old 1963). In the Western Tethys, the Oligocene P. radix was followed during the Aquitanian and Burdigalian by P. nodosus (Borson,1820). Its geographic range was comparable to that of its Oligocene precursor spanning from the Bay of Biscay in the west via the Mediterranean area probably to the Qom Basin in the east (Harzhauser et al. 2002). Unequivocal Early Miocene Paratethyan occurrences are unknown so far. The small P. praecedens (Schaffer, 1912), however, dwelled as Paratethyan endemic from Chattian to early Burdigalian times. The development of Persististrombus in the Paratethys during the late Burdigalian (Ottnangian and Karpatian regional stages) is unclear as the few specimens are too fragmentary or poorly preserved for identification at the species level. With the onset of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum, the genus become very successful in the Paratethys and as P. inflexus (Eichwald, 1830) is present in even the northernmost basins in the Polish−Carpathian Foredeep. Nevertheless, it did not enter the Eastern Paratethys where no strombids are known so far (Iljina 1993). P. lapugyensis developed geographically discrete populations around 16–15 Ma. in the southern part of the Paratethys during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum. At the same time, P. inflexus is recorded in all northern basins such as the North Alpine Foreland Basin, the Vienna Basin and the Polish−Carpathian Foredeep (see systematic chapter). A second offshoot, the delicate and elongate P. exbonellii (Sacco, 1893), developed around 14.5–14.0 Ma. in the seagrass meadows along the western margin of the Vienna Basin and disappeared soon thereafter. The evolution of this species coincides withthe cooling during Miocene Climate Transition when a drastic reduction of gastropod species occurred in the Paratethys Sea (Harzhauser and Piller 2007). The last, regionally defined off−shoot developed during the Serravallian in an embayment of the Pannonian basins complex around 13.0 Ma ago, resulting in the P. coronatus−like P. pannonicus. Still, P. inflexus was represented at least as far north as the Vienna Basin. At that time, P. inflexus also occurred in the Mediterranean Sea, where it formed huge populations in the Turkish Karaman Basin (MH unpublished data) and appeared even in the Loire Basin (Glibert 1949). The poor documentation of the genus in the Middle Miocene of the Mediterranean area is probably linked to the low amount of shallow marine siliciclastic in Middle Miocene deposits. The wealth of Langhian and Serravallian deposits in the Paratethys Sea is contrasted by relatively few coeval outcrops in the Mediterranean area. Therefore, the impression that the Persististrombus inflexus−lineage experienced an extraordinary bloom only in the Paratethys Sea has to be considered with caution. Due to the changing water chemistry of the Paratethys, the entire Persististrombus inflexus−lineage became extinct during at the end of the Serravallian together with most stenohalinemarine taxa (Rögl 1998; Harzhauser and Piller 2007). It seems to have vanished also in the Mediterranean area around the Middle/Late Miocene boundary and became replaced by Persististrombus coronatus. This species appears during the Tortonian in the Mediterranean Sea (Sacco 1893) and persisted to the Messinian of Libya from where Bandel (2007) reported on aberrant specimens. Later it becomes a very common species during the Zanclean and the Early Piacenzian (Sacco 1893; Stchépinsky 1939, 1946; Harzhauser and Kronenberg 2008). It might have originated along the West African Coast as suggested by a report of the species by Brébion (1983) from the Middle or Late Miocene ofAngola. An Atlantic distribution of P. coronatus is documented by Meco (1977) from the Pliocene of the Canary Islands. Persististrombus coronatus disappears from the Mediterranean Sea completely with the onset of the Late Pliocene cooling (Landau et al. 2004) and seems to be extinct thereafter. During the Pleistocene Persististrombus latus (Gmelin, 1791) represents the European Persististrombus−lineage. This extant species is restricted to the African−Eastern Atlantic Province but invaded the Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene. There it appears during the warm phases of the Marine Isotope Stages 7 and 5 (De Torres et al. 2009) and probably also during MIS 3 (Zazo et al. 1984; Rögl et al. 1997)."


  • Beets, C. 1941. Eine Jungmiozäne Mollusken-Fauna von der Halbinsel Mangkalihat, Ost-Borneo (nebst Bemerkungen über andere Faunen von Ost-Borneo; die Leitfossilien-Frage). Verh. Geol.-Mijnbouw. Genootschap Nederland en Kolonien, Geol. Ser., 13:1-282.
  • Beets, C. 1986. Molluscan fauna of the Lower Gelingseh Beds s.str., Sangkulirang area, Kalimantan timur (East Borneo). Scripta Geologica, 82:1-82, Fulltext
  • Brongniart, 1823
  • Deraniyagala, P.E.P. 1956. Some fossils from the Miocene Amphitheatre at Minihagalkauda, Ceylon. Spolia Zeylanica: bulletin of the National Museums of Sri Lanka, 28:1-5.
  • A.K. Dey. 1962. The Miocene Mollusca from Quilon, Kerala (India). Palaeontologia Indica NS, 36 1962: 1-129.
  • Durham, J. W. 1950. The 1940 E. W. SCRIPPS cruise to the Gulf of California: Part 2, Megascopic paleontology and marine stratigraphy, Geol. Soc. Am., Mem., p. 1–144, Fulltext
  • Durham, J.W., 1962. New name for Strombus granulatus subsp. acutus Durham, 1950, not Perry, 1811. The Veliger 4(4): 213, Fulltext
  • Finlay, H.J., 1927. New specific names for Austral Mollusca. — Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst., 57: 488-533.
  • Fuchs, 1870
  • Garcia-Talavera, F., 1993. Los moluscos marinos fosiles. Galapagos: patrimonio de la humanidad. Res. Cient. Proy. Galapagos, TFMC 3. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Cult. Cabildo de Tenerife:61 pp. Fulltext
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  • Glibert, 1963
  • Hanna, 1926
  • Harzhauser, 2007
  • Harzhauser, Reuter, Piller, Berning, Kroh & Mandic, 2009
  • Harzhauser, M. and Kronenberg, G.C. 2013. The Neogene strombid gastropod Persististrombus in the Paratethys Sea. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (4): 785–802.Fulltext
  • Jung & Heitz, 2001
  • Kronenberg & Lee, 2007
  • Kronenberg, G.C. 2008. An intergeneric hybrid (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Strombidae) with remarks on the subdivision of Indo-Pacific Tricornis. – Basteria 72 (4-6): 331-343
  • Ladd, 1972
  • Landau, Kronenberg & Da Silva, 2010
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  • Martin, K. 1899–1906. Die Fossilien von Java auf Grund einer Sammlung von Dr. R. D. M. Verbeek. Sammlungen des geologischen Reichsmuseums Leiden (Neue Folge) 1: 1899: Ocinebra—Telescopium: 133–220, 1905: Modulus—Delphinula: 221–281, 1906: Nachtrag zu den Gastropoden: 281–325, Fulltext
  • Mawe, J. 1823. The Linnaean system of conchology, describing the orders, genera, and species of shells, arranged into divisions and families; London; i-xv, 1-207, pls. 1-36, Fulltext
  • Moscatelli, 1987
  • Petuch, E. J. (2003). Cenozoic seas: the view from eastern North America. CRC Press
  • Roman, F. (1940). Listes raisonnées des faunes du Pliocéne et du Miocéne de Syrie et du Liban. Notes Mém. Haut-Comm. Rép. fr. Syrie Liban, t. 3. Paris.
  • Schaffer, F.X. 1912
  • Shimer & Shrock, 1949
  • J. de C. Sowerby. Explanations of the plates and wood-cuts. Plates XX to XXVI, to illustrate Capt. Grant's Memoir on Cutch. — Trans. Geol. Soc. London., 2nd series, Vol. V, 289, Pl. XXVI, fig. 19. 1840. (Strombus deperditus or depertitus ?)
  • Swainson, W. 1822. Appendix. Description of several new shells, and remarks on others, contained in the collection of the late Mrs. Bligh. [in] A catalogue of the rare and valuable shells, which formed the celebrated collection of the late Mrs. Bligh 20 pp. London.
  • M. Taviani, 2015. Unpersisting Persististrombus: a Mediterranean story; Vieraea, 42, 9-18.
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