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Species / Perissoptera Parkinsoni


Original Description of Rostellaria Parkinsoni by Mantell, 1822, p. 108:

  • "Subfusiform, wreaths seven or eight, convex, with longitudinal ribs, and numerous transverse striae; outer lip dilated, armed with one styloid process, beneath which is a broad truncated expansion."

Locus typicus: Blackdown Hills, Somerset-Devon Counties, South West Region, England

Stratum typicum: "Greensand", upper Albian, lower Cretaceous

Rostellaria parkinsoni Mantell, 1822, pl. 18, fig. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10

History and Synonymy


Rostellaria parkinsonii in Sowerby, 1822 , pl. 349, fig. 1-5


Rostellaria parkinsoni Phillips, 1829, pl. II, fig. 34


Rostellaria parkinsonii in Sowerby in Fitton, 1836 , pl. XVIII, fig. 24


Rostellaria parkinsonii Geinitz, 1840, pl. XV, fig. 2

  • Tyssa


Rostellaria parkinsonii Geinitz, 1842, pl. XVIII, fig. 3


Rostellaria parkinsoni Reuss, 1846, pl. IX, fig. 7

  • "untern Quadersandstein von Zloseyn"


Rostellaria Parkinsoni in Geinitz, 1874, pl. II 30, fig. 7, 8


Gardner, 1875, p. 200:

  • "Aporrhais Parkinsoni, Mantell. PI. VI. Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7. Description. — Shell elongated; the spire forming an angle of about 30°, is composed of 9 or 10 convex whorls, which are finely striated spirally, the striae being sometimes wider apart in front of the suture. Each whorl is rather irregularly ornamented by 16 to 20 or more, slightly flexuous, slender ribs, which have, though rarely, a tendency to produce varices. The body-whorl is wholly destitute of carinae, and is prolonged in a broad rounded expansion obliquely truncated at the extremity and sinuous at its anterior margin, where it unites with the canal; there is at the posterior margin a deep sinus equal to half the length of the wing, and above this sinus is a long recurved canaliculated point, in some species nearly equal to the length of the spire and accompanying it, but at a considerable angle. On the wings the continuation of the striae is interrupted and disconnected by rather strongly marked lines of growth crossing them, giving it a somewhat reticulated appearance. The wing is much thinner than in A. marginata. The aperture is narrow, and the anterior canal moderately long. The Blackdown specimens are usually of rather smaller size, the ribs slightly more prominent, and with a greater tendency to produce varices. The sinus in the wing is not so deep, and the anterior canal is shorter. This species is easily distinguished from all others of the Gault by the rounded appearance of the last whorl, its elongated ribs, and by the form of the wing. The superior prominence of the striae in front of the sutures is not an important character, although considered to be such by Pictet. A number of similar forms are described by Continental authors, none of which appear to be identical with this or the next species. This form of shell seems more especially to characterize the Chalk, representatives being found in all parts of Europe. It is very like A. occidentalis of recent times. Distribution. — It is found abundantly at Folkestone, Cambridge, and Blackdown; also at Sidmouth, and in the ferruginous nodules of Shanklin and other Lower Greensand (Neocomian) localities. Fitton and Mantell give it an extended range in the Chalk, but this range belongs more probably to the next species. On the Continent it is common to the Gault of the Paris and Mediterranean Basins, and to Switzerland. Specimens from St. Florentin have extravagant sutures, and approach A . Mantelli by the prominence of their ribbing. History. — This species was first figured by Parkinson in his Organic Remains, 1811, vol. iii. p. 63, pl. 5, f. 11, from a Blackdown specimen. In 1822 Mantell, in the Geology of Sussex, p. 72, described a Blackdown specimen, and also, p. 108, one from the Grey-Chalk. He says: " This species occurs in the Greensand of Devonshire, and is figured in the third volume of Organic Remains. As it has not received a specific appellation, I have named it from my excellent friend James Parkinson. Esq., M.G.S." It is therefore evident that, although he confounded the Greensand with the Chalk species, the Blackdown specimen figured by Parkinson he intended to bear the name Parkinsoni. The figures in pl. xviii. are unfortunately of not much value. This error of Mantell has led to much misunderstanding and confusion. In 1827 Sowerby, in the Mineral Conchology, pl. 558, figs. 5 and 6, re-figured Parkinson's original examples from Blackdown, but unfortunately included under the same name a quite distinct London-clay species, now known as A. Sowerbii. He again figured the Blackdown fossil for Fitton in the Geol. Trans. 2nd series, vol. iv. pl. xxviii. In 1839 Geinitz, in his work on the Saxon and Bohemian Cretaceous Series, figures some imperfect and doubtful specimens as R. Parkinsoni, but considers that Mantell had figured a different species from Sowerby. The figure that most resembles Parkinsoni, and which he calls Parkinsoni of Sowerby, he re-named Reussii, distinguishing it as having "wider and shorter whorls, with the ribs multiplied on the last whorl, and continued to the outer edge of the wing." Geinitz, however, subsequently, in 1850, declared that Parkinsoni is not found in Germany, all the various forms there being distinct. Goldfuss figures a very similar form as R. papilionacea, Reuss, two others as R. Reussii and R. megaloptera (Verst. der Böhm. Kriede, tab. ix). The following notices probably all refer to true Parkinsoni. Brongniart, 1829; Leymerie, 1842, Gault, not Lower Chalk; D'Archiac and Lesueur, 1846, figuring at the same time what appears to be a young specimen of this shell as Littorina plicatilis, Mem. Soc. Geol., vol. v. pl. 17. f. 8; Graves, Gault of Oise, 1874; D'Archiac, Gault of Escragnolles, Cornuel, Haute-Marne, 1851; Gras, from Isere, 1852; Renevier, Perte-du-Rhone, 1854; Cotteau, from the Yonne, 1854; Ebray, Lower Gault of Cosne, 1857; Baulin and Leymerie, Yonne, 1858 ; and Saemann from the Glauconie de la Sarthe. In addition to these, this shell is figured by Pictet and Roux in the Moll. Foss. des Gres Verts, pl. 24, f. 25; and by Briart and Cornet, Meule-de-Bracquegnies p. 18, pl. ii. f. 4, 5, 6; fig. 4 has a wing differing from ours, but it has probably been restored; Dr. Chenu in the Man. Conch, p. 560, 1859. D'Orbigny figured A. marginata in the Terr. Cret. as A. Parkinsoni, and mentions it in the Prodrome, in which he separates the Blackdown species under the name of R. Megaera. In England, Professor Edw. Forbes was, I think, the first to separate the Chalk species of Mantell from that of the Gault, in the Quart. Journ. G. S. for 1845, p. 350; Prof. Morris gives it in his Catalogue of British Fossils from Folkestone and Blackdown; and Mr. Tate described it under a sub-generic name as Perissoptera Reussii in the Geol. and Nat. Hist. Repert. p. 99, f. 18. A. Robinaldina and A. glabra, from the Lower Greensand, have both been confounded with this species. For the remaining references to A. Parkinsoni, see A. Mantelli."

Aporrhais parkinsoni in Gardner, 1875, pl. VI, fig. 4-7


Lispodesthes Parkinsoni in Soehle, 1897, pl. 2, fig. 3, 3a, 3b


Smettan, 1997, p. 140 about Perissoptera cf. parkinsoni:

  • Material: 1 Schalenexemplar
  • Maße: 1990 VI 756 H: 44,7 B: 13,8 <: 39° H(Spira): 22,3 H(Flügel): 10,5
  • Beschreibung: Gedrungen spindelförmiges und relativ dickschaliges Gehäuse mit kurzem, zur Mündung hin gebogenem Rostrum und zweigeteiltem Flügel. Der untere trapezoidale Teil trägt 4 kräftige Querrippen, während der obere, leicht beschädigte Teil aus 2-3 Stacheln besteht. Dieser pathogen anmutende Teil des Flügels ist eventuell die Folge eines starken Bewuchses mit Epöken zu Lebzeiten des Tieres. Die Skulptur der schwach konvexen, geschulterten Windungen besteht aus kräftigen Längsrippen und einer bis zur Basis reichenden Spiralskulptur.
  • Diskussion: Der gedrungene Wuchs, das kurze Rostrum und der gekantete letzte Umgang verweisen die Art in die Nähe von P. parkinsoni. Jedoch reichen die Achsialrippen der letzten Windung im Gegensatz zur Beschreibung von Kollmann (1978) fast bis zur Basis.
  • Stratigraphie und Verbreitung: Alb - Cenoman; England, Polen, Nördliche Kalkalpen.
  • Vorkommen: Sandsteinfazies.
  • Lebensweise: infaunal?.

Perissoptera cf. parkinsoni Smettan, 1997, pl. 8, fig. 14

Perissoptera cf. parkinsoni Smettan, 1997; Branderfleckschichten, Cenomanian, Cretaceous; Fahrenbergmulde near Oberaudorf; Coll. Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie BSPG no. 1990 VI 756

Specimens from institutional collections

Perissoptera parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); Albian, lower Cretaceous; Folkestone, Kent County, South East region, England; Coll. BM(NH); Copyright BM(NH)

Perissoptera parkinsonii (Mantell, 1822); "Greensand", upper Albian, lower Cretaceous; England; Coll. Goldfuß-Museum Bonn; Copyright IPB

Rostellaria parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); Albian, lower Cretaceous; Strépy-Bracquegnies, Hainaut Province, Wallonia, Belgique; Coll. Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bordeaux

Perissoptera cf. parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); lower Cretaceous; Zubielqui, Allin municipalily, Navarra Province, Autonomous community of Navarra, Northeastern Spain; Coll. Luberri Geologic Museum; Photo Alex Machin

Specimens from private collections

Perissoptera parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); Albian, lower Cretaceous; Folkestone, Kent County, South East Region, England; left: 46 mm, right: 50 mm; Coll. Elmar Mai

Perissoptera cf. parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); Albian, lower Cretaceous; Revigny-sur-Ornain, Meuse Department, France; 34,5 mm; Coll. Denis Bailliot

Perissoptera parkinsoni (Mantell, 1822); Albian, lower Cretaceous; Folkestone, Kent County, South East Region, England; 12 mm; Coll. Philippe Simonet


  • named after James Parkinson, author of "Organic Remains of a former World"



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